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Although the modern immigration from Finland "The Republic Farthest North", is rather recent, the Finns were not altogether new to America even before that time. They have the honor of belonging to the charter members of the American Republic, for the Finns took part in the colonization of Delaware in the seventeenth century, with the Swedes, the first group of them settling there in 1641. They were followed by others in several expeditions until 1664, when the English took the colony from the Dutch, who had taken possession of it in 1655. These early Swedes and Finns were Americanized so thoroughly that no racial trace of them is found at the present time. A few of the oldest churches on the banks of the Delaware still bear witness to the memory of these stalwart, God-fearing, early settlers of Delaware, and their names are written indelibly in the annals of the American War of Independence. John Morton, the last signer of the Declaration of Independence, was probably a son of these early settlers of Delaware.
"The Russian Finns have begun migrating to America", was a headline in one of the large Chicago dailies heralding the coming of a group of Finns to America in l87l.1 Immigration from the province of Vaasa in Finland was at a feverish height about that time. At least two groups of a hundred men each sailed from Liverpool in the summer of 1871, most of them bound for the copper country in Michigan, where large numbers of Finns from Norway and Sweden had settled earlier.2 Most of these early immigrants had come from Hammerfest, Wadso, and Kaafjord in Norway. They had arrived in company with Norwegians who had come to work in the copper mines of Houghton County in northern Michigan. T'his was in 1864, which may be taken as the starting year of Finnish immigration to America.
The first Finnish immigrants, therefore, came from Norway, where several thousand Finns are found, engaged mostly in fishing. Reports of favorable working conditions and of homestead lands to be had free of charge were sent to the homeland, and others followed the earlier comers in increasing numbers. A few years later we find a wave of immigration sweeping through the Finnish settlements in northern Sweden. As there has always existed intimate communication between the Finns of Norway and Sweden with there kin in because of the large number of men from northern Finland who make annual fishing trips to the Norwegian coast, it is easy to understand that the wave of immigration soon atttracted a large number from the northern part of Finland. The province of Oulu, whence the earliest immigrants from Finland have come, was losing early a large number of its inhabitants before emigration spread to other parts of Finaland. Nearly all of the Finnish immigrants up to 1870 are thus seen to have come from Norway, Sweden, and the northern part of Finland. The usual route from Finland was from Tornea through the northern part of Sweden, to the seaboard towns of Norway, whence they set sail for America. A little later others sailed down the Gulf of Bothnia to Stockholm, and then through the chain of inland lakes and canals to Gothenberg, where they embarked on sailboats. The voyage across the Atlantic often took as long as seven weeks. By 1870 the emigration movement had seized the province of Vaasa, and since that time the bulk of Finnish immigration to America has come from that district.
Certain laws of reciprocity relating to economic conditions have always existed between America and the countries of emigration. In times of financial prosperity in America, immigration swells, but when conditions are dull, immigration decreases, and many leave the country to return to their native lands. Such an economic phenomenon occurred in America in the fall of l873, when the boom of railroad building to the Pacific coast was followed by a panic. Immigration to America dropped in general to a few thousand. This also checked immigration from Finland, and we do not find newcomers in large numbers until after the year 1880.3
Numerous factors played a part in determining the number and character of Finnish immigrants. One of the major causes has been the meager earnings and uncertainty of subsistence in the homeland. Knowledge of better economic conditions existing in America was first brought to the Finns in Norway, Sweden, and Finland by the returning sailors, many of whom had served in the service of different maritime nations. It is known that over one hundred Finnish sailors entered the United States Navy in 1861, during the trying days of the Civil War. Some of these sailors settled permanently in the large cities along the Atlantic coast, in New Orleans and San Francisco, while others returned to their native land. Then, also, with the immigration once started, there was mutual communication between the immigrants and their relatives at home. When anyone succeeded financially in the new homeland, news of it would spread far and wide, thus kindling a desire in many others to seek their fortune in a distant land, while the hardships and failures of others would be forgotten. The wave of immigration of the nineteenth century had now spread over the Fenno-Scandinavian peninsula, and the economic conditions at home were not such as to be able to stem that tide.
The second important cause was the compulsory military service law which was enacted in Finland in 1878, just at the time emigration from Finland had begun to grow. Many young men would rather leave their country than be drafted as "regulars" into military service for three years. Opposition to military service by many Finns cannot be interpreted is disloyalty to their country, but must rather be understood as rising from the peculiar position Finland occupied at this time as a grand-duchy under the Russian rule, as well as from a natural hatred of war engendered in them through centuries of war on their own soil. This cause was accentuated by the unfortunate political acts of Czar Nicholas II of Russia, who was the grand-duke of Finland, and which culminated in the February Manifesto in 1899. By this manifesto many of the rights of Finland, guaranteed under its constitution, and approved by each succeeding emperor under solemn oath on accession to the throne, were taken away. This met with stern passive resistance "new" immigration on the part of the people, but the emperor adopted new measures for the prosecution of his purposes. Many were driven into exile, while thousands and thousands fled from the country "to the land of the free and the home of the brave". We shall see later how these political events caused Finnish immigration to America to rise to its greatest height.
A further reason for immigration from Finland is seen by Professor O. H. Kilpi in the operation of the law of "social capillarity", by which he meanes that particular transition through which a country passes when it changes from an agricultural to an industrial country. "Emigration from a country always appears", he says, "as far as time is concerned, during that period of social-economic transition which is caused by an industrial and capitalistic revolution in an old traditional agricultural community.4 Thus the Pohjalaiset, inhabitants of the province of Vaasa, where farming is very prosperous, have formed the bulk of immigration from Finland, because they have been affected by this social change. Moreover, a reason is also found in their industrious and enterprising nature. They are expert carpenters and builders, and many of them have been employed in different parts of Finland at these trades, some even going to Sweden and Norway. Since living conditions in the province of Vaasa have always been as good as in any other rural section of Finland, a reason for their migration cannot be found in poor living conditions. It is rather because of the restless nature, called the wanderlust, of many young men and women -and not because of any financial pressure. This reason is given by M. Tarkkanen, former director of the Missionary Society of Finland.5
Many other causes have contributed to the immigration from Finland, but they are to be considered accidental rather than real. For instance, Ilmonen points out a case of the custom described in the first chapter; of a steamship company employing a Finnish agent in conjunction with an employment bureau at Duluth, Minnesota, to enlist workers from Finland for a certain railroad construction job in the United States. All these factors, taken together, have been powerful enough to separate more, than one tenth of the population of Finland from their homes and native land.
The number of immigrants and their location. The Government of Finland did not publish official statistics of emigration before 1883. That year the Governor of Vaasa was directed by the Government to keep a record of all passports issued to emigrants, and the following year the same order was extended to include the province of Oulu as well. Since 1893 official statistics have been published for the whole country. We have to rely on other sources for information covering the period before the official reports were available. Professor O. H. Kilpi has estimated the number of immigrants from Finland to America between the years 1871 and 1875, at 100, 220 between 1876 and 1880, 3,717 between 1881 and 1885, and 21,968 between 1886 and 1890.6 Professor Arthur Hjelt has estimated the total number of immigrants to America from Finland up to the year 1892 as 36,401.
After 1893 we have the official figures of Finland on immigration: Between the years 1893 and 1910 the total number was 206,389, an enormous amount, indeed, compared to the number that migrated during the three earlier decades. The cause for this great increase is seen in the political conditions which followed the February Manifesto in 1899, and lasted until the close of the Russo-Japanese War, when there was noticed a marked melioration of the policies of the Czar. During the decade from 1911 to 1920 Finnish immigration to America dropped to 67,346, but it must be remembered that the World War falls within this period, when immigration from Europe was practically at a standstill. Thus the total amount of immigration from Finland between the years of 1893 and 1918 was, according to these official figures, 274,735. By adding to this amount the 36,401 that had come prior to 1896, according to Hjelt, the total number of Finnish immigrants in America became 310,136.
This figure is in interesting contrast with that of the United States census, which lists on1y 149,824 foreign-born Finns in this country in 1920. Several factors account for the seeming discrepancy: the former figure does not take into account the number of Finns who returned to the home country, deaths after arrival here, or the important fact that approxamitely one fifth of all emigration, about 55,000, although classified under one caption "America", actually went to Canada. Taking these facts into consideration, the two figures tend to substantiate each other.
During the period from 1921 to 1936, 17,475 Finns came to the United States, approximately 14,000 of this number arriving during the four years 1921-1924, inclusive. Because of the immigration quota (569), the number leaving the United States since 1925 is nearly twice the number of those entering.
The fifteenth census of the United States lists 142,478 Finns of foreign birth in 1930, and 178,058 native born or of mixed parentage, the total being 320,536. To this amount should be added the Finns from Norway and Sweden and their American-born children, or about 80,000, which gives us a grand total of about 400,000 persons of Finnish stock in America in 1930.
Social Classes of Finnish Immigrants Before the World War
Very careful classifications of all emigrants from Finland have been made by the Government since 1893. They are divided into fifteen classes - namely, farm owners, children of farm owners, tenants, children of tenants, lodgers, skilled agriculturar workers, merchants and clerical workers, sea captains and sailors, trade workers, mechanics and industrial workers, domestic servants, common laborers, civil officers, public servants, and miscellaneous. And analysis of the number of these classes is interesting, as it reveals the different causes operitive upon the different groups and at different times. The three groups that include approximately two thirds of the total are lodgers, children of farm owners, and children of tenants, in the order named. Laborers rank next in frequency, followed by domestic servants and trade workers. It is significant to note, in contrast to other countries where persecution seems to have centered on the upper classes, that very few merchants, civil officers, or public servants have emigrated.
For the most part, all occupational groups tend to follow the curve of general immigration. If there is any difference existing between the pre-war and post-war periods, it may be seen in the increase in the emigration of farm owners, the children of farm owners, mechanics and industrial workers, skilled agricultural workers, and women servants after the war and a decrease in the number of tenants and their children leaving after 1921, as compared with the years up to the Word War. The first group, farnn owners, shows the most definite reversal of the general trend, increasing from less than ten per cent of the total male emigration to more than twenty-five per cent during the period 1926-1930. Although contributing much less of the total, the emigration of agricultural experts shows the same trend.
Cultural Differentiation and Assimilation
Although distributed throughout the United States, the Finns have tended to congregate in the East North Central States, as shown by the following data from the fifteenth census. The states are divided into nine groups. The number of foreign-born Finns in each group is as follows: New England, 18,502; Middle Atlantic, 22,290; East North Central, 42,946; West North Central, 26,328; South Atlantic, 1,191; East South Central, 154; West South Central, 297; Mountain, 5,765; and the Pacific States, 25,004. In terms of specific states it is found that most of the Finns are located in Michigan; then in Minnesota, New York, Massachusetts, Washington, California, and Wisconsin. There has been some shifting between the year 1918 and the year of the above census, but in general we can conclude that the states most populous of Finns stood in the order they occupied in 1930. Houghton County in the upper peninsula of Michigan has always claimed the largest Finnish population, Calumet and Hancock being the largest towns. Another center in Michigan is found in Marquette County, with a large Finnish population in Ishpeming, Negaunee, Marquette, and Republic. Gogebic County is to be named next in order, with several thousand Finns located in Ironwood and its vicinity. Passing over into Minnesota we come to Duluth, where some of the first immigrants landed. Later, when iron mining was begun on the Vermillion and Mesaba Ranges, thousands of Finns moved to the mining towns in this region. They are very numerous in Eveleth, Hibbing, Ely, and the neighborhoods of these cities. After working in the mines for a few years, thousands of them have taken up farming in the vicinity of these mining towns, and St. Louis County, Minnesota, is one of the largest Finnish farming communities in America. On the western coast, Astoria, Oregon, early attracted Finnish fishermen, and a large number of them have followed that occupation there ever since. At the present time one of the large canning factories there is owned by the Finns. From Astoria they have spread into the neighboring towns, and many are found as farmers on the dike lands along the Columbia River. In the State of Washington their most populous city is that of Aberdeen, where several thousand Finns are found, and many live in Seattle, also. But the fertile mountain valleys have attracted the majority of Finns, where they cultivate their orchards of peaches, plums, pears, and apples.
In California we must name San Francisco, where the first Finns settled at the time of the California gold rush. Many are today found working in the sawmills of Eureka and Fort Bragg, while others work as "loggers" in the grand redwood forests. A settlement of raisin growers is found in Reedley. A few hundred Finns live in Los Angeles, where at least two daughters of Finnish immigrants have reaped fame as film stars. Traveling back east, where we first stop in Wisconsin, we find the majority of the Finns of this state settled on farms for example, at Turtle Lake, Owen, and Phelps. In Illinois the Finns are located in Chicago, and Waukegan and DeKalb, being employed in the wire mills and other factories of the last two towns. In Ohio the Finns first lived in the towns on the shore of Lake Erie, where they were employed in unloading and loading the ore and coal boats, but later many of them moved farther inland, where they either work in the steel mills or farm. In New England the most populous Finnish settlements are in Fitchburg, Worcester, and other factory towns. Many have bought land around towns in Massachusetts, and make a prosperous living by raising strawberries and garden truck. Several hundred Finnns ara found in Maine as farmers. Coming to the State of New York we find a very large group of Finns in the City of New York, perhaps more than in any other American city. Detroit, Michigan, also boasts of a Finnish population of several thousand, most of whom have moved there from the Upper Peninsula. They are found employed in the automobile factories, many acting as draftsmen, engineers, inspectors, and so forth.
Occupations. Only a brief reference was made in the above sketch to the several locations and occupations in which the Finns are employed. They were naturally compelled to do hard manual labor when they first arrived in America. Most of them were unskilled in any trade, and they were handicapped because of their ignorance of the vernacular of the land. Thus we find them taking up mining, although they had never been used to it in their native land. But soon they became known as efficient miners in the copper and iron mines of Michigan. Farming has always been a favorite calling with the Finn, and some of the early comers settled on homestead lands in Minnesota. Others moved to the farm after working in the mines or at lumber camps for some time. Thus we find prosperous farming in nearly every state where Finns are more numerous - for example, Rudyard and Kaleva, Michigan - besides the farming communities near the mining towns. They have cleared thousands of acres of stump land in Michigan, so that Mr. J. H. Jasberg, colonization agent of the D.S.S.A. Railway, remarked humorously that the only language the stumps of northern Michigan understand is the Finnish language. A high tribute is paid to the Finnish farmers of the New England States by Professor Van Cleef, of the State University of Ohio, in the Scientific Monthly, May, 1922. He states that they have reclaimed for cultivation thousands of acres of rundown lands that were thought to be useless, except for growing pines. But by their persistent and pratical methods they have turned them into profitable farms.
While speaking of the New England States, mention must be made of the quarry workers in Vermont, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. In Quincy they own a large granite quarry, from which very endurable, high-grade tombstones are gotten. We have alreay mentioned the fishermen on the Columbia River in Oregon. Other fishermen are found around Gloucester, Massachusetts, and in towns along the Great Lakes, in Duluth, Two Harbors, Portage Entry, Michigan, and elsewhere.
The Finn has shown his ability at all kinds of hard labor. Such occupation had to be accepted at first, out of necessity. But today no line of occupation is closed to him. He has advanced to various trades and mechanical lines and is making a success in them. The Finns of second and third generations are entering different kinds of professions, and thousands of the young men and women are found as teachers in public schools and colleges. They are found as doctors, lawyers, ministers, engineers, architects, musicians, nurses, foresters, and as other professional men and women. In general, we may conclude with professor A. J. Pietila, of the University of Helsinki, that in the course of a few decades they have risen from despised and misunderstood immigrants to the position of respected citizens.7
Religion. The Finns are religious by nature. Before being converted to Christianity, they worshipped the supreme being through one of the most elevated forms of pagan religion. After accepting Christianity in 1157, the church of Finland kept the faith pure and undefiled. It early adopted the reformed faith in the Lutheran form. Finland is today the most Lutheran country in the world, for approximately 97 per cent of the people belong to the Lutheran Church. The early settlers brought with them to America a deep religious spirit. Finland had experienced three great religious revivals during the 18th and 19th centuries under the pietistic, evangelistic, and Laestadian movements. So we find the influence of these movements in their religious activities in America. The first settlers had been brought up under the influence of the Laestadian movement in Norway, Sweden, and the northern part of Finland. This movement had originated with one Lars Levi Laestadius, a Finnish minister in the service of the Church of Sweden. The immigrants from Vaasa had been reared under the pietistic movement and generally represented the spirit of the Church of Finland. Later immigrants have brought with them the evangelistic spirit, which was started in Finland by Pastor J. G. Hedberg and other young ministers. In these movements we find the foundation for the divisions that exist today in church organizations among the Finns. We shall note briefly the three groups of the Finnish Lutheran Church in America.
The Suomi Synod or the Finnish Evangelistic Lutheran Church of America is the oldest and best organized. It represents the spirit of the Church of Finland. It was organized in 1890, at Calumet, Michigan, by four ministers and seventeen lay delegates representing nine congregations. The work of the church is well organized, with separate boards presiding over home missions, foreign missions, educational work, ,and the publications. The Synod is divided into six conferences because of the wide field of the congregations. It had 182 congregations, sixty ministers, and 38,005 members in 1935, 193 Sunday Schools with 6,826 scholars. There are 121 Luther Leagues, 137 church choirs, and 175 Ladies' Aid Societies. The value of the entire church property, including Suomi College and Theological Seminary and the Lutheran Book Concern, is in excess of $1,500,000). The local congregations are scattered throughout all the states were Finns are more numerous.
The evangelistic group is organized into the Finnish National Lutheran Synod. This body was organized in 1898, with headquarters in ironwood, Michigan. The work is well organized and the Synod holds annual meetings. Home missions work is well carried on extensively in the United States and Canada. Foreign mission work has done until a few years ago by supporting the work of the Gospel Society of Finland, which has a field in Japan. The Synod publishes its own church organ, Auttaja, and other publications for furhering Sunday school and Young People's Christian work. This synod has less than ten thousand members, and about 60 congregations with approximately twenty ordained ministers.
The Laestadian group is known as the Apostolic Lutheran Church, the name having been adopted in America. They have been a loosely organized group until quite recently, but in 1928 one faction formed a more definite organization. Meetings are held every year, their chief function being to gather the people together for their spiritual nurture. All the Laestadians are not, however, affiliated with this organization, but maintain separate activities. Rev. Paul Heideman, of Calumet, is the spiritual head of another faction. Another group of Laestadians have no ordained ministers among them, and it may be added that the Laestadians in general do not believe in an educated ministry. We may estimate the Laestadian group as having about 40,000 members and about 100 churches. They are found scattered in several states, Houghton County in Michigan being the strongest center.
Suomi College and Theological Seminary. This is the only institution of higher learning of the Finnish people in America. Founded in 1896, its main purpose was to educate pastors for the Finnish Lutheran Church. It was also to provide Christian education to the children of immigrants, while they pursued their secondary education. Originally modeled after the lyceum and the secondary school in Finland, it has at present four departments - namely, Junior College, Commercial Department, Music Department, and Theological Seminary. Its student body consists of about 30 per cent of students of nationalities other than Finnish. It is supported and governed by the Suomi Synod. Its first president was the Rev. J. K. Nikander, D.D., who was one of the founders of the Synod. After his death in 1919, the Rev. J. Wargelin was elected its head. During an interval of three years, the Rev. A. Lepisto, Ph. B., served as president. The school celebrated its fortieth anniversary in the fall of 1936, and was the recipient of many messages of appreciation of its work from representative organizitions in America and Finland.
Organizations. The temperance movement was one of the first activities that engaged the interest and the work of the Finnish immigrants in America. There were reasons for it. The Finns had accepted a love for the cause of temperance, for Finland has always been one of the leading countries in temperance work. Then there was practical need for this kind of activity. The open saloon was the only institution that seemed to befriend the newcomer, but it was a menace to his health and success. The oldest general organization, known as the Finnish National Brotherhood Temperance Association, was organized in 1885. Its membership reached 10,000 in 1904. But as has been also the case with temperance work in general, the work among the Finns has suffered a decline. It cannot be said that the Finns have become more intemperate in the use of alcoholic beverages, but that they are carrying on the work in other forms, mainly through their churches.
About 1896 there was organized in Montana a secret order by the name of Knights of Kaleva. A little later a women's auxiliary was organized. The membership in the two organizations is perhaps six or seven thousands.
It may be of interest to name certain other activities in which the Finns have participated. First place among these voluntary organizations must be given to their musical organzations, choirs, and bands. The Finns brought with them a love for music, and this is not strange when we recall that musical culture has been very high in Finland, producing many noted musicians. Bands were organized during the last two decades of the nineteenth century in nearly every larger Finnish community. Efficient band masters were to be found among the musicians who had played in military bands in Finland. Even today some of them are still in existence - for example, the Louhi in Monessen, Pennsylvania, and Humina in Ashtabula Harbor, Ohio. Both of these organisations have become well known in many circles. Side by side with the bands were the male glee clubs and choirs. Large musical festivals were organized annually, at which thousands of people gathered. Such activities would not be out of place even at the present time in our American life as means of worthy use of leisure. The second form of leisure activities engaged in by the Finns was athletics, and clubs were formed by temperance societies and other organizations. This was also a heritage from the homeland. The Finns have always been athletic, producing some of the best athletes the world has ever known - for instance, Hannes Kolehmainen, Paavo Nurmi, "The Flying Finn", Matti Jarvinen, and Jonne Myyra. Such activities point the way to healthy physical, mental, and spiritual growth.
The press. The first Finnish newspaper in America was founded by A. J. Muikku, a student from Finland. It was called Amerikan Suomalainen Lehti (The Finnish Newspaper of America), the first issue appearing on April 14, 1876. Since that time many other publications have appeared, about one hundred in all, but they, like the first, generally died after a career of a few years, some few surviving a longer time. The oldest Finnish newspaper now in existence was organized in 1899.
The papers that are in existence today may be classified under the following groups. The largest group are the church papers which include: Amerikan Suometar (The American Spirit of Finland), tri-wekly, organized in 1899 by individuals, but purchased the following year by Suomi Synod. Since that time it has been published by the Finnish Lutheran Book Concern, of Hancock, Michigan, which also publishes the Paimen Sanomat (Shepherd's Tidings), a monthly religious paper; the Lasten Lehti, a monthly Sunday School piper, the Nuorten Ystava, the young people's monthly paper; and Kirkollinen Kalenteri, a church yearbook. Suomi College publishes a religious and educational quarterly by the name of Suomi-Opiston Juhlajulkaisut (The Festival publication of Suomi College), and Suomi Synod issues an annual bulletin Vuosikirja, containing reports and statistics of the Synod. Lannen Suometar (The Western Spirit of Finland), a biweekly, is also published by the Synod in Astoria, Oregon. Auttaja, a weekly, is published in Ironwood, Michigan, by the Finnish National Synod. The same Synod also published a Sunday School paper. Semi-religious papers are the Valvoja (The Observer), a tri-weekly, published in Calumet, Michigan, by an independent company, although it gets its subscribers mostly from the group of Laestadians which is headed by Rev. P. Heideman, and Opas (The Guide), a biweekly, also published by an independent group in Calumet, Michigan, but getting its support mainly from the Apostolic Lutheran Church. The national group of papers are Finnish papers that are friendly towards church work. There are four of them at the present time: New Yorkin Uutiset (The New York News), a triweekly, is published by an independent company in New York; Paivalehti, a daily, published by Carl H. Salminen in Duluth, Minnesota; Amerikan Sanomat (Tidings of America), a biweekly published by an independent company headed by Rev. G. Lipsanen, in Fairport, Ohio; and the Minnesotan Uutiset (The Minnesota News), a biweekly published in New York Mills, Minnesota, by an independent company. The socialistic papers are the following: Tyomies (The Working Man), a daily published by the Tyomies Publishing Company, a socialistic organization in Superior, Wisconsin; Industrialisti, a daily, published in Duluth, Michigan, by the I.W.W. Finnish group; and the Raivaaja (The Clearer), a radical daily, published in Fitchburg, Massachusetts, by the Finnish supporters of the Workers' Labor Party. The socialist publishing companies also issue yearbooks and various kinds of bulletins.
The Fims are among the latest groups of immigrants who have made their abode in America. They still retain many of their former customs and habits, some of which may have been referred to in this chapter. But their cultural background does not differ radically from the American traditions, for both have sprung from the Western civilization. To expect the immigrant to change completely in a generation or two shows poor understanding of the laws of assimilation. That the Finns are becoming Americanized with a reasonable speed is shown by the rate of their naturalization. The 1930 census states that 50.5 per cent of the men of the foreign-born Finns have become naturalized, and 16 per cent have taken out their first papers. Of foreign-born women, 52.8 per cent are naturalized, and 5 per cent have their first papers. Thus 66.5 per cent of men and 57.8 per cent of women have shown interest in citizenship. This shows an unmistakable trend in the first generation of immigrants. Another object lesson of assimilation is seen in the part that the Finns of America took in the service of the United States, and a large number of them now sleep in "Flanders Field, where poppies grow".
1 Ilmonen, S., Amerikan Suomalaisten historia, Vol. II, pp. 30 - 31. Printed in Finland, 1923; distributed by the Finnish Lutheran Book Concern, Hancock, Michigan.
2Ibid., p. 25.
3Wargelin, John, The Americanization of the Finns, p. 54.
4Ibid., pp. 41 - 45.
5Tarkkanen, Matti, Immigration, Its Cauces and Results, p. 7.
6Kilpi, O. H., Finnish Immigration and National Economics during the Nineteenth Century. (In Finnish.)
7Pietila, A. J., Helsingista Astoriaan, p. 265.
Published in Our Racial and National Minorities. Their History, Contributions, and Present Problems. Ed. by Francis J. Brown & Joseph Slabey Roucek, 1937, p. 286-303.
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