[ End of article ]

The Finnish Language on the Delaware

A. R. Dunlap & E. J. Moyne

Even though Finland and Sweden were politically united in the seventeenth century, the common people of Finland maintained their own language, and this was true, to some extent, of the nobility as well.1 Thus, when groups of Swedes and Finns migrated to America, both Swedish and Finnish were spoken in the settlements established at Fort Christina (now Wilmington, Delaware), at Fort Elfsborg (just south of Mill Creek on the New Jersey side of the Delaware river), at Upland (now Chester, Pennsylvania), at Tinicum (an island just below Philadelphia), and along the lower reaches of the Schuylkill,2 and eventually, as the settlers moved out from the fortifications, at places like Crane Hook3 and Tacony.4 The records are such that it is impossible to separate satisfactorily the Finns from the Swedes, but the settlers designated Finns in the sources at our command are as follows:

Abraham the Fin, of Fort Christina (Hall,5 p. 315)
Anders the Finn (JSSD, pp. 462-64, 717)
Lars Anderson the Finn (JSSD, p. 717)6
Anders Andersson the Finn (JSSD, p. 714)
Andrew the Finn, of Deer Point (NYCD, XII, 647)
Andries Andriesen the Finn (DYR, p. 139; NYCD, XII, 366, 426)7
Askell the Finn, of Crane Hook (NYCD, XII, 648)
Christer Boije, of Upland (JSSD, pp. 307, 709: 'Boije belonged to a Swedish-Finnish noble family')
Clement the Finn (JSSD, pp. 454, 464)
Henry Coleman8 the Finn (NYCD, XII, 463)
Bertil, or Bartil, Eskelsson the Finn, of Upland and the Schuylkill (JSSD, pp. 149, 705, 713, 718)9
Johan Fransson from Viborg, Finland - a resident of Fort Christina (JSSD, p. 239)
Mats Hansson from Borgå, Finland - a resident of Upland (JSSD, pp. 152, 705, 712)
Hendrick the Finn (JSSD, p. 535)
Evert, or Ivert, or Ivar, Hindricksson the Finn, of Crane Hook, Upland, and the Schuylkill (JSSD, pp. 151, 517, 705, 711, 719; NYCD, XII, 426, 649; NCCR, I, 289)
Catherine Homan, born in Finland (Keen, p. 225)
Hans Janson the Finn (JSSD, p. 719)
Karl Jansson, or Jonsson, or Johansson, from Kexholm, Finland - a resident of Fort Christina and Tinicum (JSSD, pp. 150, 152, 706; NYCD, XII, 30)
Johan the Finn (JSSD, p. 464)
Johan the Finn, of Upland (JSSD, p. 708)
Klement Jöransson, a Finn, of Upland (JSSD, pp. 149, 705, 713)
Jurgen the Finn 'on the Crooked Kil' (NYCD, XII, 191)
Anders Jurgen the Finn (Acrelius, p. 89)
Stephen Juriansen, or Yerians, '& the three other fins att Pompoen hoeck [Finns Point]' (NCCR, I, 20)10
Måns Jurrensson the Finn (JSSD, p. 713)
Karin 'the Finnish woman' (JSSD, pp. 454, 545, 547)
Eskil Larsson, a Finn, of Upland (JSSD, pp. 149, 705, 713)
Hindrick Larsson the Finn (JSSD, p. 720)
Lasse the Finn (JSSD, pp. 350, 545)
Lars Carlsson Lock 'the Finnish Priest' (NYCD, XII, 359; Hazard, p. 330; Myers, p. 150)
Måns the Finn (JSSD, p. 464)
Måns Månsson the Finn, of Upland (JSSD, p. 524)
Marcus the Finn (Hall, p. 315)
Knut Mårtensson from Vaasa, Finland - a resident of Fort Christina (JSSD, pp. 702, 712, 721)
Mårten Mårtenson (see n. 48 below)
Mathias the Finn, of Crane Hook (NYCD, XII, 649)
Hindrick Matson, or Matzon, the Finn (JSSD, pp. 463, 713, 720)
Clement Michelsson the Finn (JSSD, p. 535)
Erik Mullica, of Taokanink, or Tacony (UCR, pp. 179-80)11
Hindrick Olufsson, or Olsson, the Finn (JSSD, pp. 634, 715)
Jöns Påfvelsson, a Finn, of Upland and the Schuylkill (JSSD, pp. 149, 704, 708)
Simon the Finn, of Crane Hook (NYCD, XII, 648)
Brour, or Brewer, Sinick, or Seneca, of Deer Point (NYCD, XII, 647; Penn MSS, Vol. XV)12
Mons Pietersen Staeck from Åbo, Finland - a resident of Upland and Calkoen Hook (Evjen, p. 344)13
Peter Stalcop's wife, a Finn (Kalm, p. 731)14
Mårtin Thomasson the Finn from Österbotten (JSSD, p. 708)

By further research this list of 'certified' Finns could undoubtedly be extended,15 but in its present form it is adequate to reveal the presence of a number of Finnish settlers at various points16 on the Delaware River. The proportion of Finns in the total population is another matter; there are certain kinds of evidence, however, which help us toward a rough estimate. For one thing, Finns were encouraged by the Swedish government to emigrate to America. Economic conditions in Sweden in the seventeenth century were such that the government was embarrassed by the large number of Finns that had been brought into that country during the previous century.17 Efforts were consequently made to drive them away, either back to Finland or across the ocean to New Sweden. As a result of these efforts, some colonists were secured.18 In addition, certain undesirable Finns were sent to the colony by force.19 Secondly, we know from the records of the colony that many of the passengers on the ships bound for New Sweden were Finns. For example, out of a total of 105 colonists on the Mercurius, which sailed in 1655, Huygen lists 92 as Finns.20 'The majority were "Swedish Finns" and, since Papegoja [the commander] did not understand the Finnish language, he engaged one Hendrick Olsson, who had been in New Sweden before, to assist him.'21 Thirdly, the records also contain indications of the presence of large numbers of Finns in the colony. For example, Lindeström remarks, circa 1655, that the land between the Christina River and the Sandhook (i.e., New Castle) was 'here and there settled by Finns';22 Beeckman, Stuyvesant's representative at Altena (formerly Fort Christina), speaks, in 1662, of 'sixteen or eighteen families, mostly Fins, residing in our jurisdiction';23 Thomas Paschall, an English settler in Philadelphia, writes to a friend, in 1683, that the 'River ... [was] taken up all along, by the Sweads, and Finns and some Dutch, before the English came';24 and a Philadelphian, Jacob Bengtson, in 1748 observes, on the strength of information given to him by his grandfathers, who were among the first Swedish settlers, that 'a large number [of early colonists came] from Finland.'25 Finally, we have the testimony of travelers like William Edmundson, an English clergyman, who observed, upon his arrival in Delaware Town (i.e., New Castle), circa 1675, that most of the inhabitants were Dutch and Finns;26 or like the Labadists Jasper Danckaerts and Peter Sluyter, who, on a journey through the Delaware River valley in 1679, visited Takany (i.e., Tacony, now a part of Philadelphia), 'a village of Swedes and Finns, situated on the west side of the river'.27

Basing his deductions largely on the information contained in Johnson's Swedish Settlements, Wuorinen judges that of the 230 to 300 Swedish and Finnish settlers in the colony in 1655, one third were Finnish. More Finns came over when the colony was under Dutch rule, enough to bring the proportion of Finns up to one half of the total number of Swedes and Finns, or one half of approximately 400.28 Certainly, in view of the evidence presented above, these estimates do not seem too high. Hence, with due regard to the possibility that an occasional Swede-Finn knew Swedish only, we may conclude that Finnish was spoken by about 200 of the early settlers on the Delaware.

However widely Finnish may have been used along the Delaware, it was destined, like its most immediate competitor, Swedish, to eventual eclipse. An informative comment on the decline of Finnish appears in Peter Kalm's journal under the entry for November 22, 1748, as follows:

Finns have also settled here. They have never had clergymen of their own, but have always had themselves served by the Swedish. They have always spoken Finnish among themselves. Most of them settled in Penn's Neck, where people have been found who until very recently spoke Finnish. But now most of them are dead, and their descendants changed into Englishmen.29

From this testimony it is clear that Finnish was a dead language, as far as the settlements on the Delaware were concerned, by the middle of the eighteenth century. If Swedish managed to survive for another generation or so,30 the reasons for its longer life are not far to seek.

For one thing, Swedish was the official language of religion - Finnish was not. To judge by the following quotation from a letter sent to America in 1692 by Postmaster Thelin of Gothenburg, the membership of at least one church was predominantly Finnish: 'It is told us that both nations have lost their ministers: that the Finland congregation lost their minister some years since, and that their church is now deserted...'31 But Finnish congregations were served by Swedish clergymen, as Kalm indicated in the quotation above, and as Charles Springer, a Swede in America, pointed out in the following portion of his reply to Thelin: 'As for a Finnish minister, we have never had, nor do we need one, for we all in common understand Swedish.'32 It is likely that Thelin had in mind the Rev. Lars Lock, who was for many years the pastor of the predominantly Finnish settlement at Crane Hook. Among all the ministers officially sent out from Sweden to the Delaware, Lock is the only one whose Finnish ancestry is generally agreed upon.33 Whether or not Lock preached in Finnish as well as in Swedish is unknown, but in view of the background of his congregation, services in Finnish were not entirely out of the question. One bit of evidence that Finnish was a language of religion-if not the language of religion-is found in the following statement of Kalm's:

Helm believed that the copy of the Finnish Psalmbook, which had been presented to me by Zachris Peterson, was not only the oldest of all Finnish and Swedish books available here at this time, and which the Finns had brought with them, but that it was the only Finnish book procurable here; for Mr. Helm said he had often seen the copy, and had also had it as a loan, without ever seeing any more in that language.34

But even if the possibility exists that occasional services were conducted in Finnish, and even if there is evidence of the presence on the Delaware of religious literature in Finnish, Finnish was certainly a long way from being an influential church language.

If Finnish was not the official language of the church, neither was it the official language of government or of education. Such official records of the founding and governing of New Sweden as still survive are for the most part Swedish-none is Finnish. Likewise, Swedish-not Finnish-was the language of the schools.35 Here again it is conceivable that some use of Finnish was made in the classroom before the language died out completely, for at some time between the years 1694 and 1700 Peter Schaefer, a native of Finland,36 taught school among the Finns at Penns Neck, New Jersey; but if such occasional use did occur, it is of little moment.

Furthermore, the Finns, in their legal and commercial transactions, were under pressure, as a subservient group, to acquire the language of the nation in control. The following quotations are eloquent testimony to the effect of this and similar pressures which furthered the development of bilingualism and multilingualism and caused the gradual decrement and ultimate extinction of the Finnish language on the Delaware:

Here [on the west side of the Delaware River, some miles below Trenton] came up to us a Finland Man well horsed, who could speak English. (From an entry in William Edmundson's Journal, p. 107, dated 1675-77.)

Most of the Sweads and Finns are ingenious people, they speak English, Sweed, Finn, Dutch, and the Indian. (From a letter written by Thomas Paschall in 1682/3, reprinted in Myers, p. 252.)

1688 19th d. 3d m. (May). Mem. of affidavit by Peter Bildr-beek, concerning a conversation had at Laus Hendrickson's wake at ffins Point, with Woolla,Woulson and Steven's daughter Annacka [Yerians] about her pregnancy; she saying, 'she had a young Youdas [Judas], wch is by interpretation a divill in ffinns language.' (From New Jersey Archives, XXI, 553.)

This family [that of Anders Sennecson of Penns Neck] is of Finnish extraction, but has lost the Swedish [!] language. (From an entry in Collin's Journal, p. 227, dated 1773.)

Having traced the growth and decline of the Finrush language on the Delaware, it is now in order for us to raise the two questions which follow: (1) Did Finnish have any influence upon the other languages in use in the same area during the same period? (2) Did Finnish disappear without leaving a trace? The answer to the first question appears to be no, if we may trust the written record. Such obvious candidates for borrowing as, for example, the Finnish words kota 'small house,' pirtti 'cabin,' and sauna 'bathhouse37 are not set down in any of the literature that has come to our attention. On a Dutch map of 1675 entitled 'Pascaerte van Nieu Nederland Streckende vande zuydt Revier tot de Noordt Revier en't lange Eyland'38 there appears, near the position of present Philadelphia, the name Sauno, which has been considered a variant of Finnish sauna. The accompanying description of the country around Philadelphia, however, makes it clear that Sauno is the name of an Indian tribe, the Sauwanoos.39 Another word with a deceptively Finnish look, namely, Happamaö, is found on Lindeström's map of 1654-55 entitled 'Nova Suecia: Eller the Swenskas Revier in India Occidentali,40 but this is also a good Indian word.41 We are unable, then, to introduce evidence from the written record of the influence of Finnish on the other languages spoken along the Delaware in colonial times. Beyond the written record it is, of course, impossible to penetrate.

If a language is without perceptible influence upon the vocabulary of other languages in a given area (to say nothing of their phonology and morphology), one might still expect to find vestiges of it in the proper names of the area. According to Peter Kalm, 'Tolsa, Mullika, and Likonen may be recognized as Finnish names,' and probably, Toy (or Tay) and Bure (or Boore) as well.42 Other family names like Kolehmainen (Coleman), Korfhon, Valko(nen) and Veinon43 and given names like Anti (Antti) and Annika (Annikki) were almost certainly Finnish; but Finnish names, on the whole, are few and far between. The reason is that, as stated above, official records were not kept in Finnish. The non-Finnish scribe, to cope with the problem of what, to him, were outlandish names, usually followed one of three practices: (1) he recorded the name as best he could (occasionally by translation; often in abbreviated form); (2) he recorded the given name (usually in a non-Finnish form) and attached 'the Finn' as an appellative; or (3) he recorded the given name (usually in a non-Finnish form) and used a patronymic as a distinguishing label. Names of the second type were not infrequent, as the list above reveals. It may be reasonably assumed that names of the third type considerably outnumbered the names of types (1) and (2) combined, but, until biographical and genealogical research in the seventeenth-century records in Finland and Sweden now under way is completed, it will remain impossible, other confirmatory evidence lacking, to distinguish a Finn named, for example, Mattsson from a Swede of the same name, and even when such distinction is possible, the name may not, strictly speaking, be considered a vestige of the Finnish language. Traces of colonial Finnish in personal names of colonial and postcolonial times are, for these reasons, meager.

Place names in the Delaware River valley with Finnish associations were of the following types: (1) names derived from names of settlers; (2) transplanted Finnish place names, and (3) names designating the nationality of the settlers. According to The Duke of York Record, a patent was granted on October 1, 1669, to Andries Andriesen and company to erect a mill on 'a certain creek in Christiane kill in Delaware river comonly called and known by ye name of Andries ye Fynnes creeke.'44 Another name in the same area and of the same type was Brewer's Run, a small tributary of the Christina River,45 presumably named for Brour, or Brewer, Sinick, a prominent Finnish landholder on the Christina. Likewise, 'Everts hoeck or Eyland', a peninsula adjoining Crane Hook,46 was named for Evert Hindricksson. In Delaware County, Pennsylvania, the place name Morton, derived from the name of John Morton, the signer of the Declaration of Independence,47 has a Finnish connection, for Mårten Mårtenson, the founder of the Morton family in America, was born in Finland, as the following quotation from the Wicaco records shows: 'A:o 1706 d. 31 maii, Gamla Mårten Mårtenson på Amundsland, född i Finland i Swerige, och förmentes wara 100 år gammal.'48 In New Jersey, Mullica Hill and Mullica River, as well as Mullica Township,49 preserve the name of the Mullika family, which, about the end of the seventeenth century, moved from the Tacony district to the east side of the Delaware River.50 Of this small group of place names, some of which are included on rather tenuous evidence, only the New Jersey names make use of a strictly Finnish element.

In the second category, transplanted Finnish place names, appear the regional names Finland and Lapland,51 the first applied to a settlement between present-day Marcus Hook and Chester,52 and the second applied, by at least one map maker, to the area extending all the way from Fort Christina to Tinicum.53 In this category we also find the names of three fortifications. A blockhouse called Nya Vaasa, after the city of Vaasa in northern Finland, was built on the Schuylkill at Kingsessing during the regime of Governor Printz.54 Another blockhouse in the same area, Torne, or Tornaberg, was named after Tornio, a northern Finnish city on the border of present-day Finland and Sweden.55 Finally, a fortification near the mouth of the Schuylkill was called Nya Korsholm, after the castle of Korsholm near Vaasa in Finland.56 All five of these names have long since been obsolete.

In the third category, names designating the nationality of the settlers, belongs Finns Point, a New Jersey place name still in use.57 Other names of this type on record but no longer in use are Finn(s)town Hook, an alternative name for Finns Point,58 and, in the same area, the Finns Land59 and Finns Creek.60 It scarcely needs to be observed that the elements of a name like Finns Point are non-Finnish in character.

Except, then, for a few vestiges among contemporary American names, like Mullica, Toy, Coleman, and Tussey (from Tolsa, Tossawa), colonial Finnish has completely vanished from the American scene. As for the Finnish spoken by more recent immigrants to the valley of the Delaware River (in and around Vineland, New Jersey; in Philadelphia; and on Iron Hill, New Castle County, Delaware), it too is destined for oblivion, as its speakers yield to pressures like those which caused the decline of Finnish in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.61

[1] J. H. Wuorinen, Nationalism in Modern Finland (New York, 1931), pp. 41-47. Cf. J. H. Jackson, Finland (London, 1940), p. 16.
[2] For the history of these settlements see Amandus Johnson, Swedish Settlements on the Delaware (New York, 1911), pp. 184, 192-93, 304, 305-06, 307, 319, 328, 331, 339.
[3] Ecclesiastical Records of the State of New York, ed. Hugh Hastings (Albany, 190l), I, 676.
[4] Journal of Jasper Danckaerts, ed. B. B. James and J. F. Jameson (New York, 1913), p. 100.
[5] Narratives of Early Maryland, 1633-1684, ed. C. C. Hall (New York, 1910), p. 315. Other abbreviated references used in this list, and their expanded forms, are as follows: Acrelius: Israel Acrelius, A History of New Sweden, tr. W. M. Reynolds (Philadelphia, 1874); Burr: The Records of Holy Trinity (Old Swedes) Church, tr. Horace Burr (Wilmington, 1890); Dyr: Original Land Titles in Delaware: the Duke of York Record, 1646-1679 (Wilmington, 1903); Evjen: J. O. Evjen, Scandinavian Immigrants in New York, 1630-1674 (Minneapolis, 1916); Hazard: Samuel Hazard, Annals of Pennsylvania, 1609-1682 (Philadelphia, 1850); JSSD: Johnson, op. cit.; Kalm: Peter Kalm's Travels in North America, ed. A. B. Benson (New York, 1937); Keen: G. B. Keen, 'Extracts from Parish Records of Gloria Dei Church, Philadelphia,' Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, II (1878), 224-28; Myers: Narratives of Early Pennsylvania, West New Jersey, and Delaware, 1630-1707, ed. A. C. Myers (New York, 1912); NCCR: Records of the Court of New Castle on Delaware (Vol. I: Lancaster, Pa., 1904; Vol. II: Meadville, Pa., 1935); NYCD: 'Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New York' (Albany, N. Y., 1856-81; 13 vols., of which Vol. XII is entitled Documents Relating to the History of the Dutch and Swedish Settlements on the Delaware River); UCR: Record of Upland Court, 1676-1681, ed. Edward Armstrong (Philadelphia, 1860).
[6] Johnson observes that there were two or three with the same name.
[7] Hazard, p. 332, spells the name 'Hendriessen.'
[8] Originally Kolehmainen; see J. I. Kolehmainen, 'Finnish Surnames in America,' American Speech, XIV (1939), 35.
[9] Cf. NYCD, XII, 648: 'Bartle the... ,' of Crane Hook.
[10] In New Jersey Archives, XXI, 543, Lasse Henricks, Mathias Spartleson, and Errick Yerians are mentioned, along with Stephen Yerians, as landholders at Finns Town Hook. These are probably 'the three other fins'.
[11] See also Record of the Courts of Chester County, l681-1697 (Philadelphia, 1910), p. 14; and cf. NYCD, XII, 648 for reference to a Molickka of Moy Mansy (i.e., Moyamensing). Mullika (Mullikka) according to Kalm, p. 731, is a Finnish name.
[12] Sinick Brour is called a Finn in a land record in Vol. XV (p. 61) of the Penn MSS (Historical Society of Pennsylvania). On the Finnish origin of the Sinnexson, or Sennecson, family see The journal and Biography of Nicholas Collin, tr. Amandus Johnson (Philadelphia, 1936), p. 227.
[13] See also Record of the Courts of Chester Country, p. 14. There is a possibility that Staeck was a Swede rather than a Finn; cf. Evjen, p. 341. Staeck was in New Amsterdam before he went to the Delaware. Evjen also mentions Dirck Michielsen as a Finn living in New Amsterdam (p. 335) and Jurgen Woll, from Wiborg, as a resident of New York in the early part of the eighteenth century (p. 388).
[14] Kalm mentions, as one having come from Finland, the Rev. Mr. Björk's mother-in-law, who was the wife of Peter Stalcop; cf. Burr, pp. 151, 154, and 169.
[15] For example, Peter Gunnarsson Rambo and his wife, Brita Mattsdotter, may have come from Vaasa, Finland. See Otto Norberg, Svenska Kyrkans Mission vid Delaware (Stockholm, 1893), p. 67; and Nils Ahnlund, 'Nya Sverige (Delaware)', Ymer, LVII (1937), 268. As a second example, we might mention Marcus Jacobsen, the instigator of a plot against British authority in 1669. A man of many aliases, he is often referred to as 'the long Finn', but sometimes as 'the long Swede'. The documents about Marcus Jacobsen are conveniently brought together by V. H. Paltsits in the first volume of Minutes of the Executive Council of the Province of New York (Albany, 1910), pp. 309-22. On the basis of our present information, it is difficult to determine whether Jacobsen was a Finn or a Swede. Likewise, the owners of a tract of land in the Sassafras River area called 'None So Good in Fine Land [i.e., Finland] ', namely, Bartlett Hendrickson and Cornelius Peterson, may have been Finns. For the patent of this tract, which is dated September 15, 1665, see Liber 8, Land Commissioners Office, Annapolis, Md., folio 367; cf. a resurvey dated April 17, 1735, in Liber E. I. No. 4, folio 110, and another dated November 25, 1741, in Liber L. G. No. B, folio 311.
[16] On the tendency of the Finns 'to settle in scattered places', see NYCD, XII, 336.
[17] S. Ilmonen, Delawaren Suomalaiset (Hämeenlinna, 1938), pp. 30-33; J. H. Wuorinen, The Finns on the Delaware (New York, 1938), pp. 16-20.
[18] JSSD, pp. 147 ff.
[19] JSSD, pp. 149, 243, 268, 714.
[20] JSSD, p.634, n. 12.
[21] JSSD, p. 634. For reference to other ships with Finnish passengers, see Kalm, pp. 713, 717. Cf. also JSSD, pp. 650-52, 710-15; and Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, VIII (1884), 107.
[22] Peter Lindeström, Geographia Americae, tr. Amandus Johnson (Philadelphia, 1925), p. 173.
[23] NYCD, XII, 384. For further references in this volume to Finns and the Finnish nation in colonial America, see pp. 105, 126, 130, 169, 287, 299, 300, 301, 306, 307, 308, 336, 345, 350, 406, 451, 464, 508, 531, 536, 539. See also NYCD, I, 608; II, 89, 210, 211, 212, 242, 605; III, 113, 182, 186.
[24] Myers, p. 251.
[25] Kalm, pp. 717-18. One might cite, in addition, Isaac Bengtson's assertion that 'most of the people who settled at Christina of Traanhuken [i.e., Crane Hook] were from Finland' (Kalm, p. 731).
[26] William Edmundson, Journal, 2d ed. (London, 1774), p. 108.
[27] Journal of Jasper Danckaerts, ed. B. B. James and J. F. Jameson (New York, 1913) p. 100.
[28] Wuorinen, op. cit., pp. 74-79; cf. ibid., p. 133.
[29] Kalm, p. 717. Cf. the reference to 'seaverall ffinns' in the Lower Penns Neck area, Pennsylvania Archives, 1st series, I, 58.
[30] For evidence that it did, see The journal and Biography of Nicholas Collin, pp. 46, 218, 290. See also Kalm, pp. 683, 687, and C. W. Arfwedson, A Brief History of the Colony of New Sweden, tr. K. W. Granlund (Lancaster, Pa., 1909), p. 28.
[31] Acrelius, p. 182.
[32] Acrelius, p. 188.
[33] See the references under Lock's name in the list above, and cf. G. B. Keen, 'The Descendants of Jöran Kyn, the Founder of Upland', Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 111 (1879), 448-49. For information about the Finnish character of the Crane Hook settlement, cf. n. 25 above.
[34] Kalm, p. 717.
[35] L. P. Powell, The History of Education in Delaware (Washington, D. C., 1893), p. 21.
[36] E. J. Moyne, 'Two Finnish Scholars in America,' Delaware Notes, XXIV (1951), 113.
[37] That there were such bathhouses on the Delaware is attested by the presence in the records of the Teutonic word badstu; see NYCD, XII, 134; UCR, p. 70. For evidence that the Teutonic word was carried across the Maryland border see Archives of Maryland (Baltimore, 1905), XXV, 372. Place names incorporating this element were Badstove Point (NCCR, I, 363); Bathstow Creek (Deed Book I B, Office of the Recorder of Deeds, Wilmington, Del., p. I; see also, in the same office, Land Surveys, pp. 297, 500; the date of the deed is 1686/7, and that of the surveys 1702/3; cf. NCCR, I, 142, II 51); Batstowe Creek in Fenwick's Colony in New Jersey (New Jersey Archives, XXl, 544, 568, 574); and Batsto River and Batsto, the name of a community, near Mullica River, N. J. (Mullica Sheet, 1898, Geological Survey).
[38] In Arent Roggeven's Het Brandende Veen, part I; for a facsimile see George Smith, History of Delaware County, Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1862), facing p. 18.
[39] Smith, op. sit., p. 564; cf. Jansson's map of circa 1647 entitled 'Belgii Novi, Angliae Novae et Partis Virginae Novissima Delineatio...' and the other maps in the Jansson-Visscher series, e.g., by N. J. Visscher, Danckers, Van der Donck, Allardt, etc. (for the full list consult I. N. P. Stokes and D. Haskell, American Historical Prints [New York, 1933] , pp. 6-7; for references consult A. R. Dunlap, 'A Checklist of Seventeenth-Century Maps Relating to Delaware', Delaware Notes, XVIII [1945] , 68-76).
[40}In Geographia Americae, tr. Amandus Johnson (Philadelphia, 1925).
[41] Zeisberger's Indian Dictionary, ed. E. N. Horsford (Cambridge, Mass., 1887), p. 145; D. G. Brinton, A Lenape-English Dictionary (Philadelphia, 1888), p. 105.
[42] Kalm, pp. 731-32.
[43] These names, or variants of them, all appear in the records of the colony; see NCCR, UCR, Burr, New Jersey Archives, etc.
[44] DYR, p. 139.
[45] Land Surveys, Office of the Recorder of Deeds, Wilmington, Del., p. 112. See also, in the same office, Deed Book I A, p. 98. The survey is dated 1682, and the deed 1684.
[46] NCCR, I, 142. Cf. ibid., I, 506; II, 51; and a deed dated 1686/7, Deed Book I B, Office of the Recorder of Deeds, Wilmington, Del., p. 1.
[47] A. H. Espenshade, Pennsylvania Place Names (State College, Pa., 1925), p. 268.
[48] Tilläggsband, ed. F. Elfving (in Pehr Kalms Resa till Norra Amerika, ed. F. Elfving and G. Schauman), Helsingfors, 1929, p. 219. In English, this death notice would read as follows: May 31, 1706, the elderly Mårten Mårtenson at Amundsland, born in Finland in Sweden, and believed to be 100 years old.
[49] Glassboro Sheet, 1886, Geological Survey; Mullica Sheet, 1898, Geological Survey; The Swedes and
Finns in New Jersey
(American Guide Series, Bayonne, N. J., 1938), p. 69.
[50] Ibid., pp. 68-69.
[51] Part of Lapland comes within the boundaries of Finland (in Europe).
[52] See the maps of the Jansson-Visscher series; the Lindeström map of 1654-55 cited above; and Thomas Campanius, A Short Description of New Sweden, tr. P. S. DuPonceau (Philadelphia, 1834), p. 81. Campanius observes that 'this place was inhabited by Finns, who had strong houses, but no fort'.
[53] See the map cited in n. 38. The relation between the name Lapland found on this map and the name Lapananel found on the maps of the Jansson-Visscher series as a designation for the area immediately below Upland (present-day Chester) is not clear.
[54] See the maps of the Jansson-Visscher series, and cf. the detailed map of New Sweden in JSSD, facing p. 496. See also ibid., pp. 328, 527.
[55] NYCD, XII, 109; cf. JSSD, p. 715.
[56] JSSD, p. 331.
[57] New Jersey Archives, XXI, 550, 553, 576; XXIII, 223, 354, 474; Pennsylvania Archives, 1st series, I, 57-58; Wilmington Quadrangle, 1906, Geological Survey.
[58] New Jersey Archives, XXI, 543, 565, 566, 569, 574, 598, 645.
[59] Ibid., XXI, 566, 646.
[60] Pennsylvania Archives, 1st series, I, 32; map by Philip Lea, reproduced in Gabriel Thomas, An Historical and Geographical Account of Pensilvania and West-New-Jersey in America (London, 1698).
[61] Cf. S. S. Sahlman, 'The Finnish Language in the United States', American Speech, XXIV (1949), 24.

Published in American Speech 52, p. 81-90. 1952.

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