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The origin and early history of the Finnish people is somewhat controversial. There are many theories as to their source and wanderings prior to their settlement in the peninsula on the upper Baltic Sea which we call Finland. In the twelfth century these peaceful people were conquered and christianized by the Swedes, and remained under Swedish rule until 1809, when after a series of wars, Sweden was forced to cede Finland to Russia. Under the rule of Sweden, Finland enjoyed ample protection of certain constitutional rights and privileges; these same rights were continued under Russian rule until 1899. At that time Czar Nicolas II issued a manifesto forcibly taking these rights away in an attempt to Russianize the Finns. In this way they were dominated until the Russian Revolution in 1917. On December 7 of that year Finland declared itself an independent nation.
The characteristics of Finnish people in general are very interesting. In appearance, the Finns vary somewhat due to contacts with people of different origins. This may also be said of other national groups which are of mixed blood. The Finns who drifted into Sweden became more or less a combination of Swedish and Finnish, tall, fair complexioned, and well developed, but this description cannot be given for all Finns. They are apt to be tall occasionally, but most of them are not large of stature, nor do they possess unusual physical development. As a rule the majority of the Finnish people are fair complexioned but occasionally there are a few who are dark. A light-haired mother, when asked about a dark-haired child, once said: "the men from Spain, they sail to Finnish shores - long, long ago - and some of them stay and marry Finnish women and now sometimes our children have the Spanish color." According to one observer, "the Finns appear to have rather a surprising similarity of appearance due perhaps to the fact that they exhibit so little facial expression." Their stamina and good physical development, which are attributed to their habit of taking steam baths, eating coarse bread and plain food, and not being addicted to dissipation also deserve mention.2
Although most of the Finnish immigration to the United States has been since 1850, the first Finns came many years before that time. As near as can be determined, the first arrived at the Swedish colony on the Delaware River, aboard the Swedish vessel Chartias on November 7, 1641. Nearly all of the colonists aboard were Finns, the Swedes as a whole looking upon the colony as an undesirable place to go. Among the arrivals were eight hired soldiers, two soldier prisoners and two misdemeanants sent for punishment, and twenty-three others, including hired servants, a nobleman, and a priest, besides the regular colonists. There also may have been a few Finns in the first Swedish expedition in 1637. By 1648, the Finnish colonists had become quite prosperous, and letters were sent to their relatives and friends in Sweden and Finland to come and share their new found prosperity. The news of this prosperity soon traveled, and by 1651 the Finns were beseeching the Government to send them to the new colony. This caused Queen Christina to wonder "as there was enough land to be had in Sweden".
Johan Printz, a Swede who had once lived in Finland and had a knowledge of the Finnish language, was governor of New Sweden from 1642 to 1653. By all accounts, he had many disagreements with the settlers and was harsh in his treatment of them, causing many to leave and drift into the English and Dutch settlements. In 1683 many of these early colonists on the Delaware came under the influence of William Penn. His Quaker advisers found that the Finns and other settlers were foreigners and therefore ineligible to hold membership in the assembly, Furthermore, they were made to pay money to hold their land as freemen. Apparently they did not object to this as "the Swedes (as Penn calls the Finns), for themselves, deputed Lasse Cock [Penn's interpreter in Indian affairs) to acquaint him (Penn], on one occasion, that they would 'love, serve, and obey him with all they had declaring it was the best day they ever saw'."3
These early Finnish colonists soon acquired a liking for the new country and the ample farming land that it afforded. To some extent the forest and wooded sections along the Delaware River were cleared by the Finns, due to their unusual ability to do this type of work. In Finland and Sweden it had long been a common practice to burn trees and stumps to fertilize the ground, but too much useful timber was destroyed and drastic measures were taken to stop the practice. Those who were found guilty were sent to America where they "might-be put to some profitable use".
The next migration of the Finns came a long time after they had settled along the Delaware. The Russian-American Company engaged in the fur trade along the Pacific Coast from San Francisco to Alaska, which belonged to Russia until 1867, felt a need for a source of food supply. At San Francisco they were unable to make a favorable profit by exchanging furs for provisions, so it was decided to establish a colony where they might raise their own food-supplies. A palisaded fort was built on Badoga Bay in 1813. Finnish artisans were imported to take charge of the work which the Russians could not or would not do. In 1820 Ross, a larger post, was built about twenty miles up the coast. The purpose of this settlement was to furnish still more provisions for the northern post at Sitka, Alaska.4
Between 1830 and 1850 another group of Finns were reported to be headed for this continent, bound for Alaska. As no record of their arrival has been found, they may have gone to the Ross colony. There were Finns in Alaska at various times after the establishment of the Russian-American Company. They were mostly seamen or whalers. Uno Cygnaeus, a Finnish pastor at Sitka from 1839 to 1846, may have encouraged immigration, but one account claims that only forty-one foreigners arrived between 1804 and 1849. At the present time there are over 1,500 Finns in Alaska, the majority coming after 1905.5
One of the chief reasons for Finnish migration to America during the last hundred years was the bitter struggle for a living.6 The uncertainties of nature, combined with the domination of Russia from 1899 to 1917, caused the Finns to go where everyone had a chance for freedom and a more hopeful future. As most of the good farm land in Finland was in use there was very little, if any, left of value for expansion purposes. After the American Civil War a gradual flow of Finnish immigrants began. The immediate cause seems to have been crop failures which in Finland might often mean but one thing - starvation - because in Finland nine-tenths of the people depend on agriculture for food and income.
Most of the Finns migrating to the United States settled in places where they could find immediate employment or where the climate, soil, and physical features were similar to Finland. Most of their settlement in the nineteenth century depended more on the former, than the latter, because of their poor financial condition. The chief settlements were in the Northwest, Massachusetts, and Ohio.
The United States Census for 1930 gives the number of Finns as 320,536.7 This total includes the foreign-born and natives of foreign or mixed parentage but does not include those whose parents are natives of this country. A true estimate of the Finnish stock would be considerably larger. The ten States having the greatest number of Finns according to the 1930 Census are: Michigan (74,229), Minnesota (60,610), New York (27,247), Massachusetts (26,889), Washington (22,048), California (16,426), Wisconsin (14,596), Ohio (12,809), Oregon (12,026), and Illinois (9,623). The three counties with the most Finns are: St. Louis County, Minnesota, with 32,585, Houghton County, Michigan, with 17,970, and Worcester County, Massachusetts, with 13,175. Of these three, Houghton County has the greatest percentage, 33 percent of the total population being Finnish, but again this is not the true number as it does not include those of Finnish blood whose parents were born in the United States.
In 1920, 52.3 percent of the Finnish immigrant population was living in rural districts; the number dropped to around 48 percent in 1930. This change was probably due to the relative drop which occurred in the rural population of the United States during the same decade, and to the fact that many of the older Finns, natives of Finland, had passed away. Minnesota ranks first in Finnish rural-farm population, Michigan second, and Wisconsin third. This may not show the true number of Finnish farmers as they have a tendency to work part time in the cities and spend their spare time on farms, though when counted they may be classified as urban.
Settlement in the Northwest was generally in Michigan and Minnesota. In the early 1850's about two hundred and fifty Finns settled at Calumet in Houghton County. They were miners, imported from the copper-mining districts of Sweden, to work in the newly opened copper mines. To all knowledge, this is the only instance of importation of Finns by an industrial company. Many of these miners, like other Finns, had a deep desire to own a farm. A number of them saved their money and after a few years bought a piece of ground or homesteaded, some working in the mines part time and on the farm the remainder of the time.
Drummond Island, a part of Chippewa County, Michigan, between the North Channel and Lake Huron, is an interesting example of a Finnish settlement. It was settled to farm in the early years of the twentieth century.8 The credit for this settlement goes to Maggie Walz, a Finn, who came to Hancock in Houghton County in the early seventies. Her early life was a difficult struggle but she eventually became the founder and editor of a Finnish ladies' journal and a recognized leader among her people. She noted the temptations that befell some of the Finnish miners and desired to help them obtain and own a farm, thus getting them away from some of the bad habits they had acquired. She went to the United States land office and secured permission to colonize Drummond Island. It was then opened to settlement and three hundred Finns applied for homesteads. The first houses built were rude shacks and clearing the land was a difficult process. The enterprise, however, was successful, and the Island today has three towns, Drummond, Maxton, and John Woods, and a population of around one thousand. The soil was found to be especially adapted to sugar beets and their cultivation was encouraged. It is also noteworthy that much pride was taken in raising fine cattle and thoroughbred horses.
In 1890 a number of Finnish woodcutters living near Torch Lake in Houghton County heard of a lake rich in fish somewhere up the Sturgeon River.9 They found land to their liking and in this way Askel and the surrounding area was settled. On inquiry, they found that the land was open for homesteading and five families filed their claims. Like all settlers in a new country, they encountered many difficulties, but today the community is an up-to-date rural area and all but one of the original settlers still reside there. It was much in this way that Houghton County became a Finnish center and at the present time probably half the population is of Finnish descent. Farming is still one of their main interests, and the agricultural future of northern Michigan largely depends upon them. A step towards this development was the establishing of the Otter Lake Agricultural School.10
Of all the States, Minnesota has the largest Finnish rural-farm population. In 1873, a Swedish agent sent two hundred and thirty Finns to the territory being settled by the Northern Pacific Railroad. Later in the same year, the London office of the railroad announced that the same agent had another group of two hundred and forty-two adults and a large number of children ready to embark for Minnesota.11 The number of Finns migrating in this manner was very small because they had insufficient funds and were unable to pay passage or buy land from the railroad land companies which were so active among the immigrants in the latter half of the nineteenth century. The main influx of Finnish settlers to Minnesota began in 1890, most of them settling in the "Arrowhead Country", and especially St. Louis County. At first the number was negligible, but by 1895 there were 7,652 Finns in Minnesota. The "Arrowhead Country" was open to homesteading and the Finns took advantage of this opportunity to acquire a parcel of land. The climate seems to have been a big factor in selecting a place to live, this particular country being somewhat similar to Finland, with countless lakes and rocky, swamp and peat lands.
Typical of the Finnish settlements in the "Arrowhead Country" of Minnesota is "The Finland Community", including the village of Finland and vicinity in Lake County.12 Cramer and Isabella, two other small Finnish villages within a radius of some ten miles or more depend on Finland for trading purposes, and the children of Cramer attend its schools. The population of the community varies somewhat, as sometimes the younger members go to Duluth or Two Harbors to seek employment and return if none can be found. "The Finland Community" has an area of 24,320 acres owned by 179 individuals and corporations. Of the cleared land under cultivation, 326 acres were in hay and 165 acres in cultivated crops in 1934, the most important field crops being oats, potatoes, and barley, although some raise berries, small fruits, especially strawberries, and other farm products for their own use. They also have a cash product in cream, which they transport to Two Harbors and Duluth. The animal industry is small, there being but few hogs, sheep, and poultry, and each farmer usually has only one horse or team.
Another typical community, in ways somewhat different, is Embarrass in St. Louis County.13 The first settler was a Finn, Alec Palo, who came from the iron mines in the vicinity of the town of Virginia, and homesteaded in the early nineties. He talked to other Finnish miners where he had worked, and they became interested and took up homesteads in the same locality. The village grew gradually and without a definite plan. The houses faced different directions, none being in a straight row. The Finns of this community are said to produce more rye per acre than any other similar locality in Minnesota. Other than rye, they raise only such additional agricultural products as they need for their own use. There are approximately three hundred and fifty families in the vicinity.
The customs peculiar to Finnish farmers are interesting and may well be discussed in connection with this consideration of the region in which they are concentrated. The farm buildings are numerous and the way in which they are constructed seems to be more or less customary. They generally consist of a house, cow barn, horse barn, root cellar, several hay barns scattered over the fields, tool house, woodshed, bathhouse, and other individual structures. The construction of many of the houses is odd because the entrance to the upper floor is from the outside. The hay barn is also an oddity for the reason that the sides slope inward toward the ground and may be constructed of logs spaced several inches apart, and the floor raised a couple of feet from the foundation. Built in this manner, a constant circulation of air keeps the hay dry.
Perhaps the most interesting as well as unique building in a Finnish farm community is the sauna or steam bathhouse. It is one of the first buildings erected on the farm and is usually ten by ten feet.
About twice a week a pile of stones is heated in the bath-house, after which the entire family, father, mother, and children, wrapped only in white sheets and each carrying a pail of water, goes into the little house to bathe. Inside benches are built around the walls, and higher up there are large shelves. When the place has been made air-tight the water is thrown upon the heated stones, and the members stretch out nude on the benches and shelves ready for their steam baths. As they become accustomed to the heat more water is thrown upon the stones, producing a more intense heat.14
Even small babies become accustomed to this practice a few weeks after birth.
Legends, proverbs, folk poetry, and music from the homeland also linger in the Finnish communities.15 A feeling for these things has continued in Minnesota, possibly because the physical environment is similar to Finland. Most important of all is the Kalevala, the great national epic which records the struggle for existence which has always confronted these people. The old ballads, love songs, and laments, once sung to the accompaniment of the kantele, a triangular harp, are still in everyday use.
Finnish dance tunes are gay and Finnish humor is charming. The latter appears in many of the songs, and there are so many hearty rollicking tunes that one wonders if the usual American idea of "gloomy music of the northern countries" is not a misconception. Even the melancholy airs, of which there are plenty and among the most lovely, have no feeling of self-pity; they are rather detached in spirit and have a mysticism of a purely Finnish type, as unconscious of its quality as a stream or a spruce would be.... It is not only that the airs are different from other folk tunes, but that in both tunes and words one feels the imagination, the poetry of a reserved and shy race, using song as its natural expression.16
Charms and incantations used by professional loitija or wise women in Finland are now told to the children for amusement.17 They give rules for making the cows come home from the pastures, curing or preventing illnesses, relieving bruises, scratches, and scalds, stopping hiccoughs, preventing frozen fingers, and ridding homes of unfriendly elves. The practice of telling these tales is gradually dying out among the later generation. For some unknown reason, no costumes have survived, even among the old women.
The Finns who settled in the East are concentrated in Massachusetts.18 The first arrived in Boston around 1860, but they were not numerous at that time, most of them being sailors who had become tired of the sea and wanted to settle down and take up farming. About 1872 Finns came into the small community of Harwick in Barnstable County, but they were unable to find immediate employment and were reported to have gone on to Michigan and Minnesota. After 1890 the Finns started to settle throughout Worcester County and wherever employment could be obtained.
Many of these first settlers went to Cape Ann in Essex County, Massachusetts.19 One group located at Lanesville where the men obtained work in the quarries. This colony was largest from 1900 to 1905. During that period many of the men ceased working in the quarries because they were able to earn a better living cutting paving blocks by hand from large boulders scattered over the terrain throughout the vicinity of Lanesville. In 1907 the demand for stone diminished as other material for paving was found to be more practical, and consequently they were forced to seek other employment.Many went to Worcester County and others as far as Pittsfield in Berkshire County.
Of the Finns who settled in New England, a number took over abandoned or run-down farms. Most of these farms had been uncultivated for five or ten years and had large boulders, stumps, and a heavy growth of second vegetation. The Finnish farmers worked slowly and eventually put these farms on a paying basis. Today, especially around Gardner and Fitchburg, they are engaged in raising vegetables and small fruits and have made a record in the production of strawberries.
Another small but important settlement of Finns in Massachusetts is in the cranberry country of the Cape Cod region.20 The first Finn was brought in by Franklin Crocker in 1890 to work on a cranberry bog near the village of Hyannis. Eventually the Crocker property was sold to Makepeace, "the cranberry king", who at once recognized the value of the Finns in raising cranberries. Whenever he could, he persuaded Finns to work for him. It can readily be seen why the Finn was helpful in building up this industry. The soil in eastern Massachusetts was very poor and it was not until the nineteenth century that it was found that peat land could be successfully used for raising cranberries on a commerical scale. The Finns who had worked similar land in Finland knew how to use this type of land to the best advantage, and their knowledge of drainage was a great aid in developing the peat land for this agricultural product.
Ohio was another State in which the Finns settled, concentrating in the northeastern section.21 They first came as early as 1880, gained employment, and then, like other immigrants, sent for relatives and friends. The majority settled around Ashtabula and in smaller communities of Ashtabula County along the shores of Lake Erie. The ore docks and lake vessels afforded employment as employers found them apt workers and the possessors of great physical stamina. Many of the Finnish immigrants have worked around Ashtabula as a stepping stone to the agricultural northwest, staying just long enough to save money to buy a farm. However, many have remained in the neighborhood, possibly farming what land they could obtain when not otherwise employed.
Other localities in which Finns are found to some extent are Alemeda County, California, Lake County, Illinois, Westchester County, New York, Clatsop County, Oregon, Grays Harbor County, Washington, and Iron County, Wisconsin. The number of Finns engaged in agriculture in these places is negligible, although in Wisconsin a great number have worked in mines and elsewhere and later bought farms or homesteaded. There are a large number of Finns in the metropolitan areas of New York, Chicago, and Cleveland. Those in New York City are located principally in Brooklyn.
The greatest contribution of the Finnish farmers to American democracy is their introduction of successful consumers' cooperatives.22 The Finnish cooperative movement, as introduced in America, had its beginning in Finland in 1899. It was found that a buying and selling plan was not the only need of the people but a regeneration of an impoverished group. Dr. Hannes Gebhard, a professor at the University of Helsingfors was the leader in this movement. The Finnish people, as soon as they realized what cooperation could do for them in their life's transactions, took steps toward developing cooperatives. The result is that they have become "the most remarkable cooperators in the world. When it comes to overcoming difficulties, and when it comes to the matter of feeling cooperation in every fiber of their producing and consuming organisms,.... the Finns may easily stand at the very top among the agricultural nations of the world." Most cooperative developments by other countries have been in industry, but the success of Finnish consumer cooperatives has been credited to the farmer.23
With a background of cooperative experience, it was only natural that the Finns in America should organize cooperative stores and similar enterprises. Many of these were in operation before the World War. Perhaps the most interesting example is the Cloquet Cooperative Society at Cloquet, Minnesota.24 In 1910, one hundred and twenty-one Finnish mill workers raised a capital of $1,900 and started a store. A forest fire in 1918 wiped out the entire town of Cloquet and the society suffered a complete loss. With the remaining capital of $491, the Finnish Workmen's Society and the Cloquet Cooperative Society, working together, built a new structure. The figures given by the Society show the success they have had. The stores backed by this Society have five warehouses, one situated near the railroad tracks to deal directly with the farmers at a great saving.
The largest consumers' cooperative enterprise is the Central Cooperative Wholesale (C. C. W.) house, located at Superior, Wisconsin.25 It was founded in 1917 by the representatives of fifteen small stores. Confronted with discrimination against their stores in receiving supplies, a cooperative wholesale house was needed to keep their business going. The sum of $15.50 was collected by the pass-the-hat method, and with this small capital the C. C. W. was started. At the present time there are more than seventy successful stores connected as members, and it had over a two million dollar business in 1935. This is somewhat smaller than in previous years, but it is a 22.25 percent increase over 1934. In 1930 the business amounted to five and one-half million dollars.
Among the organizations served by the C. C. W. are the Farmers Cooperative Trading Company with its main store at Hancock, Michigan, the C-A-P Cooperative Oil Association at Kettle River, Minnesota, the Lawler Farmers' Cooperative Association at Lawler, Minnesota, the Wawina Cooperative Society at Wawina and Jacobson, Minnesota, the Cooperative Trading Company at Waukegan, Illinois, and numerous others throughout Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and the nearby States.26
About 75 percent of the members of these stores are farmers, and three-fourths of the income above expenses is returned to them. Much of the success of this vast cooperative enterprise is due to good management. The C. C. W. maintains a training school for employees and instructs them to an efficient degree in the art of management.
Massachusetts also has Finnish cooperative societies. The United Cooperative Society at Maynard is well known.27 It was started with a small capital of $1,600 and did a $400,000 business in 1935. Groceries are the main item and its stores serve the entire market-gardening and dairy region around Maynard. The Society has spread to Fitchburg where it has four stores in operation.
In a number of the large cities Finnish cooperative enterprises of various kinds and sizes can be found. The Finnish Trading Association of Brooklyn, New York, operates a bakery, a restaurant, a grocery, and a meat market, a pool room, fifteen apartment houses, and a garage.28 People may wonder how the Finnish farmers are in any way connected with this type of enterprise. They developed the first successful consumers' cooperatives in the United States, both rural and urban. Not only have they put the cooperative idea to work in farm communities, but those who have turned to the cities for a living have put it to work there. The meaning of democracy to the Finn is cooperation with his neighbor.
1 The author acknowledges the aid and helpful suggestions of his friend, Everett E. Edwards, in the preparation of this article.
2 Eugene Van Cleef, Finland: The Republic Farthest North (Columbus, Ohio, 1929) includes chapters on the peoples and the history of Finland and the Finns in America. John Wargelin, The Americanization of the Finns (Hancock, Mich., 1924) also has chapters on the historical background of the Finnish race, the causes of emigration, and the immigration, distribution, occupations, and cultural life of the Finns in America.
3 E. A. Louhi, The Delaware Finns, 229 (New York, 1925). Louhi's book is the most extensive account of the Finns on the Delaware.
4 Katharine Coman, Economic Beginnings of the Far West, 1:201 (New York, 1925); H. H. Bancroft, The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, vol. 33, "History of Alaska, 1730-1885", 481-490 (San Francisco, 1886).
5 U. S. Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations, Annual Report, 1902, p. 293.
6 W. F. McClure, "The Finns as American Citizens", Chautauquan, 49: 247-254 (January 1908); Allan McLaughlin, "The Bright Side of Russian Immigration", Popular Science Monthly, 64:67-68 (November 1903); Clemens Niemi, "The Finns in America", Scandinavia, 1 (5):18-21 (May 1924); Antero Riippa, "Finns in America," Interpreter (New York) 3 (9):10-12 (September 1924); Eugene Van Cleef, "The Finn in America", Geographical Review, 6:185-214 (September 1918), Finland, the Republic Farthest North, 190-204 (Columbus, 1929), and "Finns in the United States and Canada", Baltic Countries, 2:35-37 (May 1936); "Finland", Outlook, 65:895-896 (Aug. 18, 1900); "Finns in the United States", Literary Digest, 61 (8):34 (May 24, 1919).
7 The data used in this article are taken from the U. S. Census Office, Fifteenth Census, 1930, Population, vol. 3 (Washington, 1932). Wargelin, Americanization of the Finns, 56-68, analyzed the immigration and census data and concluded that there were 352,000 Finns in America in 1924.
8 G. L. Price, "The Angel of the Roundheads", World's Work, 26:349-352 (July 1913).
9 "Pioneer Finnish Settlement in Michigan", Michigan History Magazine, 14:381-397 (July 1930).
10 L. A. Chase, Rural Michigan, 165-169, 172-173, 179-180 (New York, 1922).
11 J. B. Hedges, "The Colonization Work of the Northern Pacific Railroad", Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 13:323 (December 1926).
12 D. H. Davis, "The Finland Community, Minnesota", Geographical Review, 25:382-394 (July 1935).
13 Konrad Bercovici, On New Shores, 101-118 (New York, 1925).
14 Ibid., 113.
15 Marjorie Edgar, "Finnish Folk Songs in Minnesota", Minnesota History, 16:319-321 (September 1935), and "Finnish Charms and Folk Songs in Minnesota", ibid., 17:406-410 (December 1936).
16 Edgar, "Finnish Charms and Folk Songs in Minnesota", 320-321.
17 Marjorie Edgar, "Finnish Charms from Minnesota", Journal of American Folk-Lore, 47:381-383 (October - December 1934).
18 Eugene Van Cleef, "The Old World in the New", Scientific Monthly, 16:498-504 (May 1923).
19 H. C. Babson, The Finns in Lanesville, Massachusetts (Los Angeles, 1919).
20 Eugene Van Cleef, "The Finns on Cape Cod", New England Quarterly, 6:597-601 (September 1933); C. Y. Mason, "The Cranberry Industry in Massachusetts", Economic Geography, 2:59-69 (January 1926).
21 Eugene Van Cleef, "The Finns in Ohio", Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, 43:452-460 (October 1934), and "The Finns of Ohio", Association of American Geographers, Annals, 21:139-140 (June 1931); McClure, "The Finns as American Citizens", 248-249.
22 B. B. Fowler, Consumer Cooperation in America, 261-274 (New York, 1936); Ernest Lundeen, "The History, Growth, and Benefits of Cooperatives, with Particular Reference to Minnesota", Congressional Record, 80 (6):6739-6762 (May 6, 1936); V. S. Alanne, "Trends of Today in the Finnish Cooperatives", Cooperation, 18:113-115 (June 1932); M. Tenhunen, "Broadening of Cooperation among the Finns", ibid., 14:167-168. "A consumer cooperative is a collective, profitsharing organization which buys and sells its products. A producer cooperative is a profit-sharing organization which manufactures and sells its commodities." - Manya Gordon, "The Cooperative Movement", Saturday Review of Literature, 14 (8):3 (June 20, 1936).
23 Freeman Tilden, "The World's Champion Cooperators", Country Gentleman, 89(30):15 (July 26, 1924). Cf. Van Cleef, Finland, 94-110.
24 "Finnish Cooperators in America", Interpreter, 7(3):6-11 (March 1928); Ahti Tuohino, "Cloquet Cooperative Society", Cooperative League of the United States of America, Third Yearbook, 100-105 (Minneapolis, 1936).
25 Lundeen, "The History, Growth, and Benefits of Cooperatives," 6744; H. V. Nurmi, "The Story of the Central Cooperative Wholesale," Cooperative League of the United States of America, Third Yearbook, 66 - 71 (Minneapolis, 1936); Central Cooperative Wholesale Yearbook for 1936.
26 Ibid., 84-99, 105-115, 214-218.
27 F. P. Stockbridge, "Cooperation Can't Be Done with Mirrors", Saturday Evening Post, 209 (16):28, 98, 100, 101, 102, 104 (Oct. 17, 1936).
28 "United Cooperative Society of Maynard", Cooperative League of the United States of Arnerica. Third Yearbook, 131; "Seven Strides Onward Toward the Cooperative Commonwealth", Cooperation, 11:61-63 (April 1925), summarized in "Progress of Finnish Cooperators of Brooklyn", Monthly Labor Review, 20:1379-1380 (June 1925); "What 1500 People Have Accomplished by Getting Together", Playground, 15:48-49 (April 1921).
Published in Agricultural History, Vol. 11, 1937, p. 65-78.
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