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The Americanization of the Finns

John Wargelin, A.M.,

President of Suomi College and Theological Seminary

Chapter I.  Introduction. Meaning of Americanization Discussed.
Chapter II.  Historical Background of the Finnish Race.
Chapter III.  Causes of Immigration from Finland.
Chapter IV.  Finnish Immigration to America.
Chapter V.  Distribution and Occupations of the Finns.
Chapter VI.  Cultural Life of the Finns. a) School.
Chapter VII.  Cultural Life of the Finns (continued). b) Press.
Chapter VIII.  Cultural Life of the Finns (continued). c) Church.
Chapter IX.  Cultural Life of the Finns (continued). d) Societies.
Chapter X.  Naturalization and Political Life.

Chapter V.
Distribution and Occupations of the Finns.

Table No. VII shows the distribution of the Finns in general, but a word or two is needed as an explanation of this fact. We find the greatest numbers inhabiting the northern states of our country. They are most numerous in Michigan, Minnesota, Massachusetts, New York, Washington, Oregon, Ohio, and Wisconsin. The reason for their congregating in these states is not very difficult to find. Any student of the immigration question knows that immigrants are to be found mostly in the industrial centers, or where there is most demand for unskilled labor. The first Finns came to the "so-called" Copper Country of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan because they had been imported by one of the large mining companies operating there.1 When the first Finns were settled there, they called others of their friends and relatives. Thus the Finn, who had never been a miner in his native country, became a miner in America, which occupation he has followed ever since.

I do not agree with many writers on Finnish immigration that he settled in the barren, cold, marshy sections of our northern states because he was drawn there by climatic similarity with the old country. Similarity does exist, but the Finn knows it himself that it is not an ideal climate for farming or living in general. But why didn't he settle in Iowa, or Illinois, or Ohio or in some other fertile section of the United States? The immigrant knows from solid facts of reality that he has no chance there without means. Homesteads were not to be procured in them any longer when he came. The only chance he had was to stick to any kind of a job until he had saved enough to feel independent. But by this time he had become acquainted with his work and the surroundings; others followed him, and in a short time there was a large community of his countrymen about him. If he now thought of settling on a farm, he didn't have money enough to buy one in a valuable farming section, neither was he acquainted with such places. The thing for him to do was to buy a farm in some neighborhood where other Finns had settled before him, or take a homestead in some far away unsettled region in northern Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota or some other northern state. This is the main reason why the Finns have settled so largely in the colder and unfertile sections of the United States. It has been the course of least resistance, although it has put him fighting against unknown difficulties and severities of the inclement forces of nature.

The Finns in the mines. We shall consider this occupation first because it was the first occupation the Finn was engaged in on coming to America. In Finland mining does not exist as we know of it in America. No doubt, there are mineral deposits there, but they have not been developed as yet. Yet the first comers to America were led into this occupation, as we have pointed out before. As he was an industrious and hard worker, he made good, and has ever since been known as a miner of the first rank. From the copper mines of Houghton and Keweenaw Counties many found their way to the iron districts in Marquette County, that were just opening about this time. Later we find them coming to the large iron district known as the Gogebic Range. The iron mines in northern Minnesota were opened up considerably later than in Michigan. By that time the Finn had become recognized as a good miner, and found, therefore, no difficulty in getting work on the Vermillion and Mesaba Ranges of Minnesota. The mines developed very fast in this section, being mostly open-pit mines from which ore could be dug up very easily. More Finns kept coming right along, until at the present time there are nearly as many Finns in Minnesota as in Michigan. Large numbers are also to be found as farmers, but we come to them later.

On the Finn as a miner, we shall let Van Cleef pass judgment. He says: "In efficiency in the mines the Finns rank close to the top. They make good timbermen in the underground mines, for they are reputed 'clever and ingenious with axe and log'. Herein one may see the result of their many centuries of training in the forests of their native land. Their struggle with nature has also developed much resourcefulness. The younger Finns coming to this country show a considerable proficiency along mechanical lines. Some of them are employed in handling drills and other machinery requiring dexterity.

"The physical strength of the Finn contributes to his ability to endure the strains incident to mining. The work is hard, and the winter long and rigorous. Where the open-pit process is used, employment does not last throughout the year. Hence many workers must find something else to engage in during the closed season. The relative isolation of the region makes travel to other industrial centers rather expensive. Therefore adjustment is made to practically the only alternative, logging. Hundreds of Finns go to the woods to labor in the deep snow and in temperatures ranging from -15 to -30 degrees F. Their life is camp life, but not after their own choosing. It oftentimes is next to intolerable. Yet doggedness, a sense of responsibility, and unusual powers of endurance, enable them to remain throughout the season. They have had vigorous training in the 'land of a thousand lakes' and the land of as many hardships." This is related of the Finns in Minnesota but it applies in general to them in other mining regions as well.

Besides the iron and copper mines, Finns are also found employed in the coal mines of Pennsylvania, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, and Illinois. Some have entered mining fields in Colorado, Arizona, Alaska, and other places, so that it is not a rare thing to find a Finn almost anywhere.

The Finn as a farmer. Over 50 % of the Finns have come from agricultural life so that it is not surprising if we find their steps leading back to farm life even in America. "If I could only get about forty acres of land, I could live more comfortably and happy on a farm. That is an ideal place to bring up your family; and then if a man should be sick, his pay-roll would not be affected by it right away; and a farmer is independent and free." Thoughts like these are often expressed by men living in towns or cities. It seems to be quite a general desire to settle on a farm sometime, and hundreds are realizing this hope every year.

After laboring in a mine or at some other work for a few years, until he has saved enough to give him a stingy start, he buys land, from 40-120 acres, and takes up his cherished occupation. He generally secures a cut-over strip of land in Michigan, files a homestead in Minnesota, or purchases an old farm in western New York, Connecticut, or elsewhere. The stumpy land looks very forlorn and challenging. But the Finn settles down to work and clears acre after acre, although compelled to leave his home many a time to work in the mines or the woods during the winter months in order to earn means of subsistence for himself and his family. For this reason Mr. J. H. Jasberg, land agent of the D. S. S. & A. R. R., who has sold more land to the Finns than any other man in America, said that the only language the stumps understand in Upper Michigan, is the Finnish language.

We have already pointed out in connection with our study of immigration that some Finns settled in Franklin, Holmes City, and Cokato, Minnesota, as early as 1864 and 1865. These communities are still inhabited by a large number of this nationality, who have become properous and live contented lives. Others settled in Ottertail County, Minnesota, where they are found in very large numbers in New York Mills, and in several places in Wadena County. New York Mills is perhaps the second largest Finnish settlement in the United States. The Dakotas also have settlements of considerable size, for example, Savo and Poinsett in South Dakota, and Brockett, Ellendale, and others in North Dakota. Farming is done here on a large scale with the use of all modern improvements. About 90 % of the farms in St. Louis County, Minnesota, are owned by Finns, and nearly the same percentage in Houghton, Baraga, and Alger Counties in Michigan. These people have first worked in the iron mines on the Mesaba and Vermillion Ranges or in the copper or iron mines of Michigan, but their "objective in America is not residence in the industrial centers, where the permanence of home is not all too certain, but rather upon the land, where their future is entirely a factor of their own direction and where they may commune with nature." Furthermore, the environment of these regions reminds him of Finland. The glacial lakes, the boulder-strewn surface, the numerous elongate hills, the woods of graceful white-barked birches or stately spired evergreens and the deep winter snows "are just like home." "The urge, in this environment; to do what he did at home, is too strong to resist and at the first opportunity he turns to the land."2

Prosperous farming communities are also found in Rudyard, Chippewa County, and Kaleva, Mannistee County, Michigan, where the Finns formed colonies about twenty years ago. They had first worked as miners in different places, and when they settled on land it was a surprise to their American neighbors to see these people, who had become known as first class miners, take up farming and make a success of it. They were not only handy in tilling the soil, but they built their own homes, shod their horses, and showed skill in many different kinds of manual labor. Prof.Van Cleef of the Ohio State University says that "the Finn is thrifty and independent. Both of these qualities are the consequence of his life upon the farm in his native country where isolation and the struggle against the odds of nature challenge the strongest and bravest of men. He has consequently developed a penchant for work, a tenacity of purpose, and a skill in farm management which may well be the envy of the peer of America's best farmers".3

He has gained many friends as he has become known as an honest and industrious tiller of the soil. The former Agricultural Commissioner of Michigan is an intimate friend of the Finnish farmer. It was during his superintendency of Portage Township schools that the first agricultural school in Michigan in connection with elementary education was organized at Tapiola -"the abode of the bears" - Houghton County, Mich. The school is now known as John A. Doelle's Agricultural School, in recognition of his service for that community. The plan has proved so beneficial that since that time a law has been passed permitting the organization of such schools, and 73 similar schools have now been organized in Michigan.

Besides the states named, Finns are found as farmers in Oregon and Washington, along the Columbia valley and other places in these states, also in Wisconsin, Ohio, and Maine. Some are further found in Texas, Alabama, Florida, and southern California. Their number in these states, however, is not very large, and signs seem to indicate no noticeable growth there, due to climatic conditions and other handicaps. Some twenty years ago a considerable number located in Alabama, on the Mobile Bay, but the rise of tidal waves which flood the country at times, causing much destruction of property and loss of life, drove most of them back. This emphasizes the need of dikes to keep the water from causing havoc along the Gulf border in general. Such an undertaking would be a task possible only for our government.

Particular mention must yet be made of the Finnish farmers in New England. It has become very noticeable that throughout the East, in the old farming communities of New York, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, many farms have not been under cultivation for the last five to fifteen years. They are generally known as "abandoned" or "rundown" farms. Prof. Van Cleef remarks that "these farms have been in a state of abandoned cultivation because the struggle has been too severe for the Yankee farmer or he has not been able to solve the problem of how to farm those particular pieces of land. Now enters the Finn who boldly, slowly, methodically and laboriously begins to rehabilitate these farms and to succeed where his predecessors have failed. He purchases a cow, some chickens and a horse, if funds permit. The first two items give him a substantial food supply in the form of milk, butter, eggs and even chickenmeat occasionally, while the third offers power and transportation. He clears away a few of the almost innumerable boulders, cuts off a portion of the dense second growth vegetation to make room for hay and enough of truck garden products for his own use, and drains a portion of the land. Tree stumps give him no particular concern at first, for he just cultivates around the stumps. In the course of time, and for the Finn time accomplishes much, all the land will be cleared, drained and under the plow."

He relates that in the spring of 1922 nearly 100 Finnish farmers marketed about 100,000 quarts of strawberries in Worcester County. This is a record that commands the careful consideration of every native New Englander, he says. These were rundown lands and also, in part, new lands which the farm bureaus of the state regarded as profitable only for the growth of pine. He concludes with enthusiastic praise of this stranger. "He knows how to solve just such problems as the lands of Massachusetts present and is demonstrating without the peradventure of a doubt that what the New Englander says can. not be done, agriculturally, can be done. The Finn is a New Pilgrim come to New England to play a new role. He is increasing land values, increasing the food supply, and establishing permanent homes where the best of citizenship develops. He is doing all this with essentially no encouragement from the great Commonwealth of Massachusetts and in the face of much discouragement."4

The 14th Census of the United States gives the number of Finns on farms as being 14,988, or fourteenth in the rank of nationalities. But it must be remembered in this connection that he is a rather late comer. In Michigan there are 3,947 Finns on farms, in Minnesota 4,703, and in Wisconsin 1,433. He ranks in proportion of numbers, third in Michigan, fourth in Minnesota, and eighth in Wisconsin. Names of communities in this northwest section, like Liminka, Toivola, Kyro, Uusi Suomi, Kaleva, etc., bear witness to the fact that Finns have founded these communities. In this they have only followed the custom established by the earlier arrivals in America, who named many of their towns after their native cities and communities.

Other occupations. We have already incidentally referred to the fact that the Finns are found as loggers and lumbermen in Michigan and Minnesota. Formerly, when the Lower Peninsula of Michigan was thickly covered with timber and logging was common, Finns were found working in the woods around Muskegon, Ludington, Mannistee, Cadillac, and other towns. Later we find them in the sawmill towns of the Upper Peninsula, in Dollarville, Michigamme, Baraga, Foster City, to mention only a few, working in the saw-mills during the summer months, and with the approach of winter, when lakes and rivers freeze over, moving to the logging camps. Hundreds of Finnish woodsmen have also been employed for years by large mining companies in Michigan in cutting hardwood for their charcoal kilns. The writer has visited many of these camps in Chippewa, Alger, and Marquette Counties, where large camps were operated. It was no task for two men to cut and pile ten cords of hardwood daily. About forty years ago, when large forests of native timber were found in Houghton and Keweenaw Counties, contractors employed mostly Finnish workmen. And often there were found near to these logging operations Finnish blacksmiths who made axes, sledges, and wedges for the woodsmen. A great many Finnish loggers are also found today in the lumber camps of the far west, or in the saw-mills where the logs are sawed up into suitable building material.

That such work is often beset with hardships and most trying severities, can readily be understood. The men must live in isolation from the rest of the world for months at a time laboring in deep snow and in temperatures ranging often from -15° to -30° F. As noted before, Van Cleef says, "Their life is camp life, but not after their own choosing. It oftentimes is next to intolerable. Yet doggedness, a sense of responsibility, unusual powers of endurance, enable them to remain throughout the season". And the same writer credits them with being "the most thrifty of all nationalities represented in the mines and lumber camps."5

Of the New England Finns, The Scientific Monthly says that the earliest immigrants found their way out of Boston to Cape Ann, where they were given steady employment in the granite quarries. Later, the quarries of Quincy and Fitchburg attracted many, while the lumber industry in other parts of New England lured some. After this they turned to the textile mills, chair factories and other industries which offered immediate work and quick cash returns. That even here they have earned a name for themselves as hard workers is substantiated by the judgment passed in the article referred to. We read: "Managers of industrial plants are loath to see the Finns move landward. They commend them as among their best workers and not infrequently make part-time arrangements which permit them during the early development of their farms to spend a portion of their time in the factory. Such an arrangement is mutually advantageous, for while giving the employer the benefit of Finnish labor it enables the Finns to secure some ready cash so essential while waiting for the first crop to mature. The Finn's mechanical skill has evolved for much the same reason as did that of the Yankee farmer of fifty years ago. The isolated farmer can not call in a plumber, a carpenter, a blacksmith, or other specialist, but must be Jack-of-all-trades. So it is, that when the Finn enters a factory without previous experience in the particular industry,'he learns quickly'. He soon becomes expert. He thereby develops a double value to the community, on the one hand as an efficient factory employee, oftentimes excelling all other nationalities, and on the other hand as a superior tiller of the soil".

The writer has himself had occasion to hear similar comments passed by large employers of Finns in Worcester, Gardner, and other towns in Massachusetts.

If we follow the Finn to Ohio, Pensylvania, and Illinois, we find him working in steel and tin plate mills. All along the Mahoning River valley in Ohio and along the Monongahela River in Pennsylvania, we find hundreds and hundreds of smokestacks belching forth smoke and fire from their mouths. This is the center of our great steel industry. Here we find thousands of Finns co-operating in the process of manufacturing this important material in our civilized life. Others are found employed in the steel mills of Waukegan, De Kalb, and Joliet, Illinois, or in Gary, Indiana, or in other steel centers of our country. Earlier than the steel workers in Ohio and Pennsylvania, however, should be named the dock and longshoremen in the harbors of Ohio, Fairport, Ashtabula Harbor, Conneaut, and other places. The first Finnish immigrants to this region found work loading and unloading boats, and even today many of them are still engaged in similar work. The work was then done without the aid of modern machinery, and required strength and endurance. But the Finn is never afraid of work. It seems to be true concerning him, as J. H. Jasberg, the noted Finnish humorist, - and humorists among Finns are rare - says, that when the Finn arrives in America, he does not undertake to peddle needles and buttons, nor sell bananas on our city streets, but seeks for "the hardest job and biggest pay."

The life of these early Ohio Finns, as well as of those found in mining towns and lumber camps in other states, was often of an intemperate and rough character. The reason for this is to be found partly in that, homesick among strangers, with no social life in which he could participate, his only recourse was to drinking, which often resulted in fights and disorder, and partly to the open saloon, which preyed on these friendless strangers. The Finn is by nature, however, sober and loves temperance. His country was the first civilized nation that voted for prohibition, and at the present time national prohibition exists in Finland. Prof. L. A. Chase, in his "Rural Michigan," says: "Normally the Finn was temperate even before the adoption of prohibition, contrary to common opinion, as was shown by his vote in favor of constitutional prohibition. In the Copper Country, for example, mining locations with a large Finnish element, and certain rural precincts almost wholly Finnish in composition, were overwhelmingly in favor of the prohibitory amendment, leaving it to urban constituencies of definite American and aristocratic tendencies to tip the balance to the contrary side.6 We come later to this subject under the discussion of the cultural life of the Finns.

One of the more recent vocational lines entered by a large number of Finns is the automobile industry. Wherever this "horseless wagon" is made, be it a "flivver" or a limousine, there Finns are found, all the way from common laborers to inspectors, skilled mechanics to draftsmen. And it may be added that he appears to be just as quick as the rest of his neighbors in providing himself with one of these modern "necessities". He not only makes "cars", but he makes them to ride in; he not only earns good money, but he earns it to spend here.

It would be useless to try to enumerate all the occupational divisions in which Finns are found, but a few of the remaining fields may be mentioned. In Astoria, Oregon, we find them fishing on the Columbia River; and one of the largest canning factories of that city is owned by them. Among the various trades throughout the country, we find a comparatively large number of Finnish representatives. It has been estimated, for example, that during the World War about twenty-five thousand of them worked in shipyards where they were in great demand.7 The American-Scandinavian Review judges them to have been "among the most valuable workers in our shipyards". In nearly all Finnish centers they enter commercial life in ever-increasing numbers, and although we can't say that they have accomplished anything very great as yet, many of them have succeeded as merchants, or jewelers, or wholesalers, etc. Many prominent and well-to-do businessmen might be named among them, for example, in Duluth, Minnesota, and in Houghton County towns in Michigan. A Finnish Businessmen's Association was established a few years ago in the Lake Superior region by some professional and business men of this section. The aim of this organization seems to be "to establish better means of assimilation between the native born and his brother business men of foreign birth." It further aims to promote an understanding of business conditions in Finland and America, and thus endeavors to establish trade relations between the two countries.

Of special interest in this connection are the cooperative organizations found amongst these people. They have had marked success especially with their cooperative creameries in Minnesota, and also in promoting cooperative methods among farmers in general. Professor Chase says that the co-operative spirit is very notable among Finnish farmers. "If a farmer loses a horse or a cow, it has been observed, his neighbors make up a contribution that compensates the loss of the animal. They are mutually very helpful in time of trouble. Cooperative business enterprises are common among them." He gives as a further example the little Finnish settlement at Rock in Delta County, where a cooperative store, flourmill, creamery, insurance society, and purebred bull association have been established. Similar examples are not wanting elsewhere. Perky, in an article, entitled: "Cooperation in the United States", also speaks of the cooperative organizations of the Finns. The cooperative movement is something the Finns found developed to a considerable degree in their native land and was brought over from there. "The Republic of Finland Survey" says that it is one of the most important factors in the general development of commercial life in Finland, and that it has grown very fast. In 1901 the first cooperative society was founded, and since that time their number has increased to 2,988.8

For the sake of comparison we add here a statistical table showing the occupations of the immigrants from Finland between the years 1901-1905. They belonged to the various occupational groups as the following table shows.

Table IX.9


  Farm workers

  55,030, about 70 %


  Laborers and unskilled laborers

  10,447, about 13 %


  Servants (women)

4,814, over 6 %


  Skilled laborers

4,539, over 5 %


  Merchants, sea-captains and sailors

2,461, over 3 %


  Industrial workers

1,241, over 1 %


  Professional men

1,715, over 2 %


  Unclassified occupations

809, about 1 %

This shows that about 70 % had been working on farms, and about 13 % were unskilled laborers. In America the largest proportion of them are still in the group of unskilled laborers, while the 14th Census found about 15,000 of them on farms. We are unable to give any estimate as to the number of professional men among them in America or of those employed as industrial or skilled workers. But considering the difficulties an immigrant has to contend with in a strange land, and the handicaps he has to overcome because of ignorance of the vernacular of the land, it takes him some time to forge ahead. That he is, however, doing this to an encouraging degree, we have no reason to doubt, thanks to our democratic social system of open classes and to his own physical and mental capacities.

We see a hopeful sign in the occupational evolution of the Finnish immigrant in America. When thousands of people are leaving rural communities to take up their residence in our rapidly developing cities, the Finn is one of the very few nationalities that has his look directed landward. This problem is a serious one, not only in America, but as pointed out earlier in the suggestion of Professor Kilpi, in most of the European countries, where they are passing through a change from agricultural to industrial conditions. In 1860 the city population numbered 18 % of the total population of the United States; in 1910 we still had 54 % in rural communities, but in 1920 the majority of the population, viz. 52 %, lived in cities. This is, indeed, a serious sociological problem. But the Finn is an exception to this rule. As we have already pointed out, his ambition is to get a farm for himself. According to the United States statistics more than 54 % of the Finns live in rural communities, but their previous occupational experience and natural love for open-air life should increase this percentage considerably in the future. Prof. Van Cleef, whom we have quoted freely, says that this phenomenon "is rather noticeable for only immigrants from Norway, Denmark, Luxemburg, and Mexico show a similar tendency."10

"One of the greatest enemies to the sincere and efficacious process of Americanization is urbanism", says a writer in a recent magazine article. "When the solution of the grave problem directly connected with the 'digestion' of the foreign masses who at present congregate in the large cities, instead of scattering themselves throughout the country, is solved, the problem of Americanization will be more than half solved. The over-crowding of the large cities by foreigners is an evil to the foreigners, but it is a greater evil to the nation. The farmer, on the other hand, is a worker and a creator at the same time, and he makes the objects which he handles; the fertility of the soil is as much created by him as by the generosity of nature. He builds houses, plants trees, and establishes firesides and families. He naturalizes himself before asking for his citizenship papers, and he becomes an active element in the formation of the general wealth of the nation."

Some have argued that immigrants have a tendency to form communities whose members "are associated together by a common origin, by religious affiliations, or by a common language and national relationship", thus constituting foreign communities in our midst. "Perhaps this is true", writes Prof. Chase, "but surely the presence of people in the same locality, kindred in speech, religious connection, economic and social status, has encouraged and comforted the members of the group in their new and strange situation and rendered them less ready to leave their rural homes for urban life".11 And we may add that although such communities do exist among the Finns, they are comparatively new. Then, again, the Americanization is not a matter of revolutionary methods, but of gradual growth and assimilation; and the older Finnish communities prove that this process is taking place with comparative speed.

The Finns are now found mainly engaged in menial occupations, but this does not mean that they lack capacity for higher vocations and callings in life, as one school teacher once stated to the writer. On the contrary they show marked ability in various professions and artistic careers, when given opportunity for development. Many immigrants have already risen to distinguished positions. A Finnish man has held a professorship in The Chicago Art Institute for a number of years; and the writer met with a happy surprise a few years ago, when enrolling as a student in a Greek class at the University of Chicago, by meeting a Finn there. The professor in charge of the course asked a few informal questions of the writer concerning his previous work in Greek, which soon revealed the fact that they had both been born in Finland, he having come to America with his parents when he was only four years old. As further illustrations, the names of two Finns may be added, who have received very distinguished honors in America recently. One is Bruno V. Nordberg, the President and Chief Engineer of the Nordberg Manufacturing Company, Milwaukee, Wis. On conferring upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Engineering, in behalf of the University of Michigan, President M. L. Burton characterized him as "a great builder of engines and an inventor of the highest scientific attainment." The other man, we have reference to, is Professor Eliel Saarinen, who has attracted considerable attention in the architectural world since his success in winning the second prize in The Chicago Tribune Building international contest. His design was pronounced the best by many of the foremost architects in America. He has now been honored with a call as a visiting professor of architectural design by the University of Michigan.

We close this chapter with a quotation from Prof. Van Cleef, for it applies in principle to all the Finns in America. He writes, "It will be worth while to look at the other side of the shield and note what sort of leadership has developed among them (Finns). The last mayor of Eveleth, Minnesota, a city of about 8,000 inhabitants, was a Finn. He is a young man possessed of an aggressive spirit and of excellent business ability. He offers an example that seems to discount the common assertion that the Finn has no capacity for business affairs. The chief of detectives of Duluth stands as another splendid example of young Finnish leadership. The medical field has its quota of Finns who rank high, and the legal profession is worthily represented. Many school teachers in the county are Finns. They rank among the best in the state, and some have made scholarship records in the normal schools that might well be envied by their non-Finnish classmates."12

1 Van Cleef, the Finn in America, p. 5, and others.

2 Scientific Monthly, May, 1923, p. 499.

3, 4 The Scientific Monthly, May, 1923.

5 The Finn in America, Van Cleef.

6 P. 167.

7 See "Koti-Home", magazine, March, 1923, p. 13.

8 See pp. 18, 19.

9 From the Social-Economic Magazine of Finland, 1905, p. 14

10 Op. cit., p. 3.

11 Rural Michigan, p. 179.

12 Op. cit., pp. 29, 30.

Publication: John Wargelin, The Americanization of the Finns. The Finnish Lutheran Book Concern. Hancock, Michigan 1924, 185 pages.

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