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The Delaware Finns

E. A. Louhi

Introduction
Chapter I.  The Finnish emigration to Sweden, from where their path led to the American shores.
Chapter II.  Motives and inducements that led Sweden to establish a colony on the Delaware River.
Chapter III.  A colony established on the Delaware River.
Chapter IV.  The second expedition. The Dutch withdraw from the company. Dutch colonists coming to the Delaware.
Chapter V.  The third expedition. Finnish colonists brought to the Delaware River.
Chapter VI.  The fourth and the fifth expeditions. More Finnish colonists brought to America.
Chapter VII.  The sixth, seventh and eighth expeditions. The Finns beseeching the queen to be permitted to go to America.
Chapter VIII.  The ninth and tenth expeditions. The Finns flocking to get passage for America.
Chapter IX.  The Delaware settlements under the Swedish administration.
Chapter X.  The Delaware colony conquered by the Dutch.
Chapter XI.  New expeditions of Finns arriving at the Delaware River.
Chapter XII.  The first period of the Finnish settlements under the Dutch rule.
Chapter XIII.  England replacing Holland as the ruler of the South River.
Chapter XIV.  The first period of the Finnish settlement under the English rule.
Chapter XV.  The second period of the Finnish settlements under the Dutch rule.
Chapter XVI.  The second period of the Finnish settlements under the English rule.
Chapter XVII.  The third period of the Finnish settlements under the English rule.
Chapter XVIII.  The last stages of the Finnish settlements on the Delaware.

Chapter XVI. The Second Period of the Finnish Settlements under the English Rule.

The great preparation for defence, carried on in the Manhattan, as well as at the Delaware, on the command of Governor Colve, were all in vain. A treaty of peace was concluded on February 9, 1674, at Westminster between England and Holland, the sixth article of which says, "that whatsoever countries, islands, towns, or forts, have or shall be taken on both sides, since the time the late unhappy war broke out, either in Europe or elsewhere, shall be restored to the former lord or proprietor, in the same condition they shall be in when the peace itself shall be proclaimed." Thus New York and the Delaware again fell under the English rule, which was to be the last period of foreign domination over the said territories.

The Duke of York's title to his territory in America was renewed on June 29, 1674, by the issuance of new letters-patent, in which he was to hold the territory as before "to his own proper use and behalf with power to correct, punish, pardon, govern and rule inhabitants thereof by himself or such deputies, commissaries or officers as he shall think fit to appoint." Two days later the duke commissioned Major Edmund Andros as governor over his territory of New York and the Delaware River Colonies.

In the instructions to Governor Andros, by the duke, the seventh article reads: "You shall give all manner of encouragement to planters of all nations, but especially to Englishmen, to come and settle under your government, and you shall assigne them lands, either of the unplanted or of such planted lands as shall be confiscated from time to time, by the crimes and convictions of the former possessors, or shall escheat to me; making this difference, that such as shall be gettled in lands formerly planted, be obliged to certain services (gratis) for the ease of the government beyond what the others obliged to, and if you can reserve out of the confiscated lands and others, sufficient for the maintenance of the government, you shall do good service in applying the rents of them to that use."

Import and export duties were defined in the said instructions. Duties were to be paid for imported goods in New York and if the goods were taken up the river to Albany, a new duty was to be paid there. The same rule was to apply to the Delaware River. Beaver skins were to pay export duty one shilling and three pence per skin, all other skins proportionately. Tobacco also had an export duty.

At the end of October 1674, Major Andros arrived to New York and immediately started to restore the government to the state as it had been before the time of the Dutch occupation. On November 2nd, an order was issued by the new governor that the magistrates in the different court districts at the Delaware, who were in office at the time of the Dutch coming here in July 1673, be reinstated for the time of six months or further order. However Peter Alrich the former bailiff was excepted, "he having proffered himself to the Dutch at their first coming, of his own motion and acted very violently (as their chief officer) ever since." The following letter was sent to the commissaries of the three different districts at the Delaware. "Being confident of your willingness and readiness for his Majesty's and your country's service, I have sent you the enclosed order authorizing you who were commissaries at the time of the Dutch coming into these parts in July 1673, to resume your places of Magistrates in Delaware River, and will not doubt of your acquitting yourselves in all respect as becomes your trust; So desiring to hear at large of the state of things with you, by the first opportunity, I remain,

                             "Your very loving friend,
                             E. Andros."

The reinstated Magistrates and Commissaries for the Finnish Colony were Peter Cock, Peter Rambo, Israel Helme, Lars Andriesson (Lasse the Finn) and Wuolle Swain (Swenson). And the High Commissaries, who also were reinstated by the letter of the Governor on November 4th, for the central government of the whole river were Peter Cock, Peter Rambo, Israel Helme, Hans Block and William Tom. To the High Commissaries it was left to pass an order for the election of a constable in each of the court districts. Captain Edmund Cantwell, who resumed his office as Sheriff and William Tom, who continued as secretary, were commissioned on November 6th to take possession of the fort at New Castle and any properties belonging to the Dutch government, also to repossess any of his Majesty's subjects to their just rights. On November 11th, Captain Cantwell was also authorized to administer the oath of allegiance to the commissaries and other persons who had particular trust reposed in them. There were not any English garrison sent to the Delaware River, the defence there was left to the colonists themselves. Only one man was employed to take care of the fort in New Castle.

According to letters passed between Captain Cantwell and Governor Andros, the people at the Delaware were well satisfied with the change of the government, which much pleased the governor.

In April 1675, there was some fear of trouble with the Indians at the Delaware River. Two Englishmen had been killed at the Millstone River in New Jersey by the Indians and on the other side an Indian had died for drunkeness at Raritan River in New Jersey and another had died for broken ribs sustained when a Scotchman, living among the Finns in Upland, threw him out of his house. On account of offences on both sides the Indians refused to comply to demands that the murderers of the Englishmen be delivered for punishment. On the 24th of April, the Indians, friendly to the Finns, having heard that one of the sons of Peter Cock and another man Walker, who had gone overland to New York with letters, had been killed by hostile Indians. This caused a great agitation in the Finnish Colony, but afterwards the report proved to be an error.

In the beginning of May, 1675, Governor Andros, in company of Governor Carteret of New Jersey, with their retinues anct with a body-guard of thirty mounted soldiers, came to the Delaware River. The governors were met at the Falls (Trenton), by Captain Cantwell with a complement of Delaware militia, oa May 4th. Among the first things the governor transacted at the River, was to commission officers for the militia companies. There were now in the Finnish Colony four companies of militia, in Crane Hook, Verdrietige Hook, Upland and Passayunk. In New Castle was a company and Apoqueminy and the Hoornkill were both to establish a company. Each company had in its command a captain, lieutenant and ensign.

On the 13th day of May there was a conference held in New Castle between the governors and the Delaware magistrates on one side and the Indian sachems of New Jersey on the other. The sachems, four in number, arrived in the morning to Peter Rambo's plantation in Passayunk, from where they were escorted down the river to New Castle by Israel Helme, Lars (Lasse) Cock and Samuel Edsall. The Indian chieftains appeared in the courthouse before the governors and magistrates and were welcomed by Governor Andros with expressions of his desire to continue in friendship with them and his readiness to protect them. The governor's speech was translated into the Indian tongue by Israel Helme, who acted as interpreter. The sachems replied, through, Mr. Helme, to the governor's declarations, with thanks, expressing their readiness to continue in good friendship.

The chiefs were then told that the governor is not asking help from their nations if some of the Indian tribes behaved bad, he can deal well enough with them, but is only wishing to be kind to those that will live quietly and well. They were also told that they must not harm the Christians nor their cattle and the Christians will not do them any injury, but justice shall be done as they might see today in the trial of James Sandyland, who was accused of throwing an Indian out of his house with the result that the Indian afterwards died of broken ribs.

The first sachem now rises up and walks up and down taking notice of his old acquaintances Peter Rambo, Peter Cock, Lars Cock and Captain Cantwell, then taking a band of sewant, he measured it from his neck to the length downward and said his heart should be so long and so great to the governor and the Christians and should never forget the governor. Whereafter he presented the belt of wampum to him, throwing it at the governor's feet.

Then the second chief rises up and professing much friendship, thanks the governor for-his kind expressions and presents him another belt of wampum. The belts being fifteen and twelve wampums high respectively.

In return of their presents, the governor gave each chief a coat and a lapcloth for which the Indians expressed their thanks. Whereafter they fell to a dance and singing, with expressions of their appreciation.

The accused man, James Sandyland, was then brought in to make answer to a presentment brought in against him by the sheriff, for suspicion of being the cause of the death of an Indian. The presentment was read, upon which (he pleads not guilty and relates the whole manner of the Indians being at his house and his putting one out of doors. The Indians were then questioned, through Israel Helme, about the circumstances of the death of their man. Their statements were found conflicting, one said the man died five days after the accident, other again that he lived six weeks and two months. The difference between wilful murder and accidental was explained to the Indians and James Sandyland was given leave to confer with them. Whereafter the case was left to the jury, which brought in their verdict, that they find the prisoner not to be guilty, and James Sandyland is ordered to be cleared by proclamation.

Four other cases concerning affairs between the colonists were handled this day. On the following day, May 14th, the court was continued at eight o'clock in the morning. Many cases were handled in that day among them were petitions and matters of public interest. The location of the Finnish churches was taken up. The Finns living at the site of the present city of Philadelphia as in Wiccaco, Passayunk and Kingsessing, had their nearest church in the Tinicum Island, it was therefore ordered that the magistrates of Upland, do cause a church to be built at Wiccaco to the convenience of inhabitants living in Passayunk and upwards. The said court being empowered to raise a tax for the building of the church and to agree upon a competent maintenance for their minister, of all which they are to give an account to the next General Court, and they to the governor for his approbation. The church at Tinicum Island was to serve for Upland and parts adjacent. And. the Crane Hook church to continue as before. The church at New Castle was to be regulated by the court in as orderly and decent manner as may be.

Thus the Finns were to have three churches, the New Castle church was then considered as a Dutch Reformed Church, which had been dominant during the second period of the Dutch rule, while the Lutheran teaching was suppressed.

The business of Highways being taken into consideration, it was ordered, that some convenient way be made passable between town and town at the river. The manner of doing it, to be ordered by the several courts in their respective areas, and likewise the charges, within three months.

A prohibition was enacted against the selling of liquors to the Indians in small quantities. No less than two gallons to be sold. Governor Carteret of New Jersey promised to give similiar order in his territory. The distillation of corn and grain was prohibited in the river. A ferry boat was to be built and maintained at the Falls (Trenton), to be stationed on the west side of the river. Lastly it was decided that the next General Court shall begin the second Tuesday in May next, unless called upon extraordinary occasion.

On May 17th Governor Andros and his party were home bound and stopped on the way at Peter Rambo's plantation in Passayunk, where a court was held. Present in the court were the governor, the Finnish magistrates Peter Cock, Peter Rambo, Israel Helme and Lars Andersson (Lasse the Finn), the sheriff Captain Cantwell and Messrs. Gab. Minvielle and Richard Cornell of New York. The matter under consideration was the "scandalous business" of Captain James Sandyland and Laurens Hoist. It was ordered that James Sandyland pay for fine the sum of 300 guilders and Laurens Holst 200 guilders. One-half of the fines was to go towards the building of the new Finnish church at Wiccaco and the other half to be collected by the sheriff in the name of the king, (actually to the Duke of York). Mr. James Sandyland or Sanderlin was also impeached of his office as captain of the Finnish Militia of Upland, and the lieutenant of the same company Hans Jurriaen or Yrjanen was promoted captain, John Prince was made lieutenant and Jonas Keen or Kyyn was made the ensign.

The provisions made for the division of parishes in the General Court at New Castle on May 13, 1675, did not satisfy the Dutch members of the churches of New Castle and the Crane Hook, as on the first day of June they address to Governor Andros the following letter, in which they profess to be Lutherans.

"To the Noble, Right Honorable, Major Edmond Andros, Governor General of all his Royal Highness, James, Duke of York and Albany, etc., territories in America."

"Show with all reverence the subscribed petitioners, the community of the unchangeable Augsburg Confession, called the Lutheran, which has its residence on the Southriver, that after the petitioners had addressed an humble petition to the Right Honorable Governor on the 13th of May Anno 1675, together with a document, drawn up in Council at New Castle on the 10th of December 1672, and presented by petitioners' minister, whereby they divided the river into two parishes, so that all above Verdritige Hook is and shall remain under the pastorate of Mr. Lars (Laurentius Lokenius) and all below Verdritige Hook under the pastorate of Magister Jacobus Fabritius, and requested and asked with due humility, that your Noble Honor would please to confirm the action and the division for the sake of God's glory and good order, the petitioners expected hereupon a favorable answer and decision and had hoped to receive the same through Captain Ed. Cantwell, but as the speedy journey and many troubles have prevented your Noble Honor, the petitioners do not know, how to act and they come therefore again to your Noble Right Honorable Worship with the humble request, to confirm the act and the division, also their minister Magister Jacobus Fabricius and to grant a favorable reply to the petitioners, doing which they remain your Noble Right Honorable Worship's subjects and mediators with God."

"The Community of the Unchangeable Confession
of Augsburg on the Southriver belonging to the Churches
of Swanewyck and Crane Hook."

The Finns had denied the Rev. Fabricius the right to preach in the Crane Hook Church and in order to understand this situation it is necessary to us to look into the career of the Rev. Jacobus Fabricius. On December 6, 1664, the Finns in New York, whose Lutheran religion had been suppressed by the Dutch authorities, received a permission of the English governor, Richard Nicolls, to send for a minister of their religion. No other suitable and willing man however could readily be procured but a Dutch speaking German Lutheran, Magister Jacobus Fabricius, who then arrived to New York on February 20, 1669. In April, the Rev. Fabricius however went to Albany where he fell in trouble with the magistrates and was suspended of preaching there by Governor Lovelace. He however was allowed to preach in New York, where he returned, but was in trouble with his congregation in the summer of 1671. On the 6th day of July of that year the congregation petitions in the court "that they may have nothing further to do with him, nor that he may any more molest them, and that a person be appointed to settle accounts." Complaints had been made at this time to Governor Lovelace by the members of the Lutheran Church against the Rev. Fabricius, wherein they charge him with several matters unbefitting one of his profession. An alderman and two others were appointed to examine and settle the differences between the congregation and the pastor. Becoming tired of the situation, the Rev. Fabricius petitioned on August 21st "for liberty to give his congregation a valedictory sermon, and to install the new-come minister (Arsenius), according to the custom used by those of their religion." Thereafter he appears in New Castle on the Delaware and on the 10th of December 1672, the people there at their own consent were divided into two parishes, between the Rev. Lokenius and the Rev. Fabricius. To the latter minister belonged the Finns and the converted Dutch in New Castle and dependencies, up to the Verdritige Hook. And all above that point, being mostly all Finns, belonged to the Rev. Lokenius.

When the Dutch rule again befell over the Delaware in 1673, and Peter Alrichs, the commander at the River was instructed "To see that sincere, true Christian religion in conformity with the Synod of Dortrecht be taught and to maintain it by all proper means, without tolerating, that people holding another belief may make the least attempt against it." It was here that the Rev. Fabricius fell in trouble and we find him again in New York, where he in the court on March 1, 1674, appears indicted of marrying a couple, "without having any legal authority to do so, and without any previous publication." The Englishman whom he married to a Dutch girl, previously had confessed in the court of having presented a forged certificate for the performance, but the fiscal demanded that the defendant "be brought to the place where justice is usually executed and there severely flogged, and further for ever banished of this province, with costs." The Dutch governor, Anthony Colve and his Counch in passing sentence professed to be "unwilling out of respect for his old age and the office he last filled, to proceed rigorously against him, but condemn and declare the defendant incapable for the space of one current year, of performing within this province the duty of clergyman, and what depends thereon." Immediately after the first sentence Mr. Fabricius was indicted for beating a woman. To this the defendant answered that the woman provoked him with harsh language. The case ended with Fabricius being fined two beavers, with costs.

On the 18th of the following month, Fabricius petitions for permission to baptize, but his request was denied. Nothing immoral ever appears against the minister, but he had a nasty temper and at this time his troubles came mostly from the religious intolerance of the Dutch.

After the English again became the rulers of the New Netherland territory, the Rev. Fabricius appears in the ministerial office in New Castle, 1675. Some of the members of the congregation of the church at Crane Hook did not want the Rev. Fabricius to hold services in their church, as he had done before, alternately with the Rev. Lokenius. For reason they gave in their letter to Captain Cantwell on August 14th that they do not understand him, as he was preaching in Dutch. They further say that if the priest desires to teach, let him remain among his own people at Swanewyck (a place above New Castle) and preach before the Dutch.

During the past fifty years there had been made attempts to settle on the New Jersey side of the Delaware River. Both the Dutch and Swedes had had a fort there. Settlements were also attempted by the English from Connecticut, but for several reasons the entire territory remained unsettled by the white man until about 1661, when some Finnish settlers had established themselves there permanently, especially along the Delaware River between the Racoon Creek and the Salem Creek.. This territory about this time and after is referred to as Finns' land and Finns' Point and in a map made by a Londoner in 1685, the present Lower Pennsneck is marked as Finns' Town and the little creek between the Upper and Lower Pennsneck is marked as Finnish River. Thus the Finns became the first permanent colonists and settlers in the western New Jersey as well as they were in the part of continental Maryland, east of the Chesapeake Bay and in the present states of Delaware and Pennsylvania.

At the north end of the town of New Castle was a large marshland, called Carr's Meadow, as Captain Carr had assigned it for himself during his stay in the colony. In the General Court, at New Castle, attended by Governor Andros, on May 14, 1675, the marsh was under discussion. It was represented "to be a general nuisance to the place and country as it then was, there being neither bridge nor fitting way to pass by, or through it, and that the Town is in great straight for want of it, as they might improve it. It was therefore ordered by the Court, that the said meadow ground shall be appraised by indifferent persons, and the Town to have the refusal, but whosoever shall enjoy it shall be obliged to maintain sufficient bridges and ways through the limits thereof, with a cartway; the appraisers to be two persons appointed by the magistrates of this place, and two more, by the Court of Upland and the appraisement to be returned in to the next Court held in New Castle."

The magistrates chosen to appraise the marshland were Peter Cock, Lars Andersson (Lasse the Finn), Peter Alrichs and Johannes de Haas, who after inspection judged the marsh to be of no value on account of the great cost by which it could be improved. Thereupon the magistrates of New Castle assembled and considered, that the order of the General Court, regarding the construction of. a highway, could not be carried out, unless an outside dike with sluices was first made Along the Delaware River and they commanded therefore that all and every male inhabitant of the district of New Castle, shall go to work on the following Monday to build the dike and continue with his work until the dike is completed. Those who did not go to work themselves were to pay others who therefore were doing more than their share. The inhabitants of New Castle were to do as much work pro rata, as the country people work or pay for. The dike was to be ten feet wide at the bottom, five feet high and three feet wide on the top, to be well made and have strong flood-gates. After the dike is finished the country people would not be obliged to worry for its repairs, but the same would be done by the people of New Castle, under condition that they shall also derive the profits from the aforesaid marsh and have it as their own.

There was also another small marsh north of the town, belonging to the magistrate Hans Block, and was already protected against the tide in the river by a dike. The magistrates considered necessary to the public that this dike should be repaired and they ordered accordingly. The work was to be done by the public in the same manner as in the larger marsh and the owner will afterwards take care of the repairs.

The people of the New Castle Court jurisdiction, reaching as far up the river as the Christiana Creek, were called to assemble in the town on the 4th day of June 1675, when the above orders of the court would be read in the church. But the people, outside of the town had knowledge of the court's decision in advance of the meeting and could see that somebody was trying to take undue advantage upon them. The order of the General Court provided that whosoever shall enjoy-the marshland shall also be obliged to maintain sufficient bridges and ways through the limits thereof. While the order of the Court of New Castle was that the people of the town shall derive the profits from the marshland and have it as their own in return of making necessary repairs in the dike. Besides magistrate Hans Block's meadow being a private property and enjoyed by himself. When then the order was read in the meeting, in presence of the magistrates, one John Ogle answered in the name of others that "we will not make Hans Block's dike, nor the other dike either." Upon which Captain Cantwell replied "You John Ogle, are an Englishman, but it does not behoof to make such an ado among so many people," taking him by the arm and shoved him out of the church. Whereupon one Mathys Smith said "That man speaks the truth and we repeat what he says." This irritated Captain Cantwell, he called for constable to put the man into the stocks, but as the constable was not at hand and Smith supported his argument with new statements the captain struck him several times with his rattan. The Rev. Fabritius then said "That man has done no wrong, he speaks the truth. If he must go to prison, then I too will go." As the constable could not be found, Captain Cantwell and the magistrates seized Mathys Smith and the Rev. Fabritius, bringing them down to a yacht in the river, in order to send them as prisoners to New York. They however later found advisable to release the prisoners as there was rising a great tumult among the people, some having swords, some pistols and others sticks with them. The Finns are much blamed for the opposition in the letters written to Governor Andros by the New Castle magistrates. One statement says that they were most drunk and another says if they had been drunk no good would have come of it. And William Tom says the Swedes and Finns are such a sort of people that must be kept under else they will rebell. In this Mr. Tom was right, the Finns having the distinction of being the only people of mankind who do not know about slavery. While the poor people among the English in Virginia and Maryland, who were brought here, were satisfied to be sold as slaves for their more fortunate brethren, the English never did have in America a Finnish slave. The Swedish Governor Rising intended to imitate the English system of slavery, but he had the luck of being shipped back to the "old country" by the Dutch, before he could realize the fruits of it, although he had his troubles. As late as 1748, white slavery existed among the English in Pennsylvania. Professor Kalm of Finland who visited America in 1748-51, tells of it and says that the emigrants coming in the English ship, on which he came over to Philadelphia, were not allowed to land before they were sold as slaves. The buyer paying the captain for the passage.

After the meeting and the tumult, Captain Evert Hendriksson (Evert the Finn) in behalf of the Crane Hook militia company and Lieutenant Thomas Jacobsson and Ensign Jacob Johnson for the Christiana Creek militia company, addressed a letter to Governor Andros, in which they explain their standing in the matter of the building of the dikes. They say that John Ogle and Domine Fabritius had been named by the inhabitants of their locality to speak for them, and that their people were willing to take part in the building of the dike, and a highwayover the marsh and also to do their part in maintaining the, same, on the condition that they also are allowed to enjoy their share of profits derived from the drained land. But Hans Block's meadow being a private property and enjoyed by him, therefore the repairs in his dike should be made by himself. They also say their nominated speakers had been sorely beaten without cause, but only speaking for the rights and interests of their people, who are even willing to buy the marsh and take care of the improvement in it.

Another letter was addressed to the Court of New Castle on the next day after the meeting, signed by the same officers of the Finnish militia companies as the above letter and also by John Ogle and five Dutchmen. This letter reads: "Pursuant to the permission, which your Honors have given us, to make our complaints and requests in writing, we remonstrate with due reverence against being obliged to help making Mr. Hans Block's dike and are resolved not to do it, as we see no reason for it, unless the Honorable General expressly commands it; we therefore altogether respectfully request and ask to have a copy of the order, to act accordingly. As to the marshland, formerly belonging to Captain Carr, we are ready to help the inhabitants of New Castle in the construction of the dike, provided that we may have part of the marsh for us and our heirs, then we will keep our portion of the dike in repairs. We request your Honors to delay this work, until we have planted our corn and remain, hoping to receive a favorable decision."

On June 8th, the above petition was sent to Governor Andros in New York, with explanations of the whole affairs by William Tom the clerk. Under the document had been written the decision of the New Castle Court upon the petition. It says: "The petitioners are directed, to obey our former order and in case of refusal the High Sheriff shall execute the work at the double amount of their expenses, pursuant to the order of the Honorable General."

This shows that the New Castle magistrates further insist in giving a false interpretation to the governor's orders in the General Court held on the 13th and 14th of May 1675, in New Castle. The order about highways, bridges, etc., was to be put in execution by the magistrates of each district in their respective territories within three months, or else the sheriff shall have power to have the work done and the country to pay double the charge. But on the other hand, the decision about the Carr's meadow, desired by the town of New Castle to take possession of, was that "whosoever shall enjoy it shall be obliged to maintain sufficient bridges and ways through the limits thereof, with a cartway."

If the New Castle magistrates had been on the square and permitted the farmers to enjoy their share of the drained land in return of doing their share in the improvements, or had let the people of the town to make the improvements and hold the meadow, as opportunity had been offered to them, there had been no cause for a public commotion. The explanations of the New Castle magistrates about the affair to Governor Andros are most false. As an example Wm. Tom says in his letter that the town was to pay double of what the country people were to pay in the building of the dike. The truth had been that, the town people were to pay a fraction of what the country people were to pay with their work, as most of the people of the jurisdiction lived in the country, south of Christiana Creek and at Swanewyck. The magistrates also ask for two files of soldiers for their protection and "to keep the people in awe."

At a council meeting in New York, on June 23rd, the disturbances in Delaware were taken up, and it was ordered that some person from New York and Connecticut be sent thither to investigate, accompanied with two files of soldiers. On the 24th of the following month the matter was again discussed in the council, the former order was respited and new order was issued to send a warrant for Magister Jacobus Fabritius and John Ogle to make their appearance in New York to answer before the governor for the misdemeanors objected against them concerning the late disturbance. The persons who subscribed the petition for the council of New Castle on June 5th, were "to be bound over to the next General Court there. In the meantime to be of the good behavior."

In a letter of August 15th, the New Castle magistrates notify Governor Andros that his order concerning the petitioners had been executed and that Magister Fabritius and Mr. Ogle are on their way to New York. Mr. Fabritius felt quite certain of his release as can be judged of his letter to the governor on his arrival to New York, in which he, in answer, to charges in the warrant says in part that "therefore, it is your honor's petitioner's humble request, that an order may be given with a commission to examine the burghers and inhabitants of New Castle whether your honor's petitioner has been tumultious against the magistrates and likewise whether he has given base language to the powers, or came armed, or has any weapon, or made any resistance. On the contrary thereof your honor's petitioner, being desired by the people to speak for them, was affrontously dealt by the commander there: upon the return of the examination your honor's petitioner hope your honor to be better informed, and shall know the very truth, and to judge that your honor's petitioner is much wronged and damaged in coming here, in losing his time, and leaving his employment with daily expenses, which your honor be pleased to consider, and to give such order, that after your honor's petitioner is cleared of the accusations laid on him his costs, expenses, damages and loss of time may be allowed to him, not being reasonable to be so much trouble in a vexatious cause."

At a council meeting in New York on September 15th the cause of Fabritius and the Delaware insurrection were handled and the following judgments passed. "Magister Jacobus Fabritius being ordered by special warrant to make his personal appearance before the Governor here to answer to a complaint made against him by the high sheriff and court at New Castle in Delaware for causing a disturbance and uproar against the Magistrate. It is ordered, that the said Magister Fabritius in regard of his being guilty of what is laid to his charge and his former irregular life and conversation, be suspended from exercising his function as a minister, or preaching any more within this government either in public or private. The orders of the Court at New Castle for making the dikes to be confirmed. The out-people there to have like or proportionable benefit of the commonage of the meadow adjoining to the dikes they have helpt to make with those of the town."

On the eastern side of the Delaware River, in New Jersey, the Finns had started permanent settlements about 1661, between the Raccoon Creek and the Salem Creek which they called Varken kill (from the Swedish Varg) or Wolfs Creek. This territory and further to the north was covered with pine forests, which had been long time utilized by the Finns for burning tar as well as for building purposes.

After the Finns had settled on the east side, some Dutchmen of New Castle also bought some land from the Indians within the Finnish Territory, however without settling on their lands immediately.

Soon after the New Netherland territory had been granted to the Duke of York, he conveyed a part of it, which he named New Jersey, to two of his countrymen, Lord Berkley and Sir George Carteret. In 1665, Philip Carteret, a relative of Sir George Carteret, arrived from England as Governor of New Jersey, and established himself at a point which he called Elizabethtown. The inhabitants of his territory were required to take an oath of allegiance for which purpose the people of the Finnish Territory commissioned Fopp Outhout and Peter Jegou, two New Castle Dutchmen who had claimed land in New Jersey. On November 3, 1668, they appeared in the New Jersey Assembly at Elizabethtown as the deputies of the Finnish Territory.

When the Dutch in 1673 recaptured their old New Netherland, the Finnish Territory became again united to the rest of the Delaware settlements in administration: The territory lying north of the Christiana Creek (on the opposite side) belonged to the jurisdiction of the Court of Upland and the territory south of the said creek, to the jurisdiction of the Court of New Amstel. After New Netherland again fell back to the English, the proprietorship in New Jersey became rather vexed by grants, purchases and assignments, which resulted in disagreements between the proprietors. In June, 1675, arrived from England Major John Fenwick, a Quaker, with his children, relatives and servants, and purported to be the proprietor of the land settled by the Finns and in which parcels were claimed by purchase from the Indians, by several magistrates, Captain Cantwell and other inhabitants of New Castle, several of whom had grants or deeds to their lands by Governor Carteret and other authorities. Major Fenwiek with his party landed on the Varken's kill, at the present Salem, where were some Finnish settlers, and started to manage the territory as the proprietor. In this he was however disclaimed by Governor Andros of New York and also by Governor Carteret of New Jersey. When complaints soon were made against Fenwick for having disturbed the earlier settlers in the possession of their estates and with force of arms pulled down and destroyed their farm houses, Governor Andros ordered, on September 25, 1676, Captain Cantwell to go over the River to investigate in the affairs.

On account of the troubles with Fenwick and for Indian affairs Governor Andros commissioned John Collier to be commander in Delaware. According to his instructions Captain Collier summoned Major Fenwick to appear in New Castle but Mr. Fenwick having refused to comply, Captain Collier visited him and having been rebuffed by Mr. Fenwick, he called on December 8, 1676, a. meeting of the justices of New Castle who with him signed the following warrant: "These are in his Majesty's name to empower and appoint you Lieutenant Johannes d'Haas, Mr. Michael Baron and Mr. George Moore undersheriff of this place to levy twelve soldiers out of any of the militia of this River, and with them to repair to the house of Major John Fenwick to bring by force before us to this town of New Castle upon Delaware, giving and hereby granting unto you and every one of you full power and authority to pull down, break, burn, or destroy the said house for the apprehending of him the said Fenwick. And further to act and use all or any forceable act or acts as the expediency of the time shall offer to your judgment withal giving and hereby granting to you and every one of you and every respective soldier under you, full power in case of resistance or presenting any gun or guns to your detriment to fire upon him the said Fenwick or any other so presenting or intending to shoot and if in the case he the said Fenwick or any other resisting shall happen to be killed, you and every one of you shall be hereby absolutely and freely discharged and held innocent, as being done in pursuant of the Duke's Lieutenant's order and of us by his honor's order recommended."

Subsequently Major Fenwick was taken to New York as a prisoner and appeared in the court on January 12, 1677, where he was fined 40 pounds and costs and was released on bail of 500 pounds.

However Mr. Fenwick insisted on his proprietorship and on the 30th of April 1678, convened the people of the Finnish Territory, demanded them to submit to him and to take an oath of allegiance. He defied the authority of the Court of New Castle in the territory claimed by him and prohibited the people with threats to pay taxes to said court. The magistrates of New Castle, having claims on parcels of land in the territory, were very eager to prosecute against Major Fenwick and in July he was again secured and sent to New York.

On October 26th, Governor Andros commissioned out of Major Fenwick's people six men to be commissioners in the Fenwick settlement "at Elsenburg, commonly called Salem." They were to determine all matters not exceeding five pounds, above which they were to admit an appeal to the Court of Justices at New Castle. Mr. Fobb Outhout, magistrate of New Castle and now living in the Finnish Territory, was to preside in their court in disputes between their people and the old settlers. An order was sent by Governor Andros to the Justices of New Castle to take care that the inhabitants on the east side of the Delaware River, within the jurisdiction of the New Castle Court, be not disturbed in the possession of their land by Major Fenwick or anybody else.

In 1676 there was a war between Maryland and the Susquehanna Indians, and in the beginning of August a message informing of Indian scare arrived to New Castle from Augustine Heerman, who had settled in the neighborhood of the Finnish settlement on the Elk River, that he once visited on his way from New Amsterdam as commissioner of Governor Stuyvesant to Maryland. One stray settler was said to have been cut off of communication with the rest of the inhabitants by the Susquehannas. Upon the news three great guns were fired to scare the savages and four men out of each militia company were called to arms, for precaution while negotiations were taken up with the Indians.

On September 23, 1676, Governor Andros commissioned Captain John Collier to go to Maryland about the Indian affairs and on his return he was to stay at New Castle as commander, subcollector of customs and receiver of the quit-rents and revenues. His commission as commander reads: "By virtue of the authority derived unto me, under his Royal Highness, I do hereby constitute and appoint you, Captain John Collier, to be Commander in Delaware River and Bay. You are therefore to take care that the Militia in the several places be well armed, duly exercised, and kept in good order and discipline. And the officers and soldiers thereof are required to obey you as their commander, and yourself to observe such orders, and directions, as you shall from time to time receive from me, or other your superior officers, according to the rules and disciplines of war and the trust reposed in you."

The office of Captain Cantwell hereafter was as High Sheriff, whose duty was to represent matters to the courts, and to execute the laws or court orders, but not to preside or have any vote in the courts.

On September 25th, Captain Cantwell was fined 200 guilders for striking Captain Hans Jurriaen or Yrjanen of the Finnish militia company of Upland and many other things at this period appears against Cantwell, which were the causes for his reduction in office.

Captain Collier whose instructions were to take some fit person from the Delaware River to go with him to Maryland, brought with him from Governor Andros commissions for magistrates and for the high sheriff and also appointment of Ephraim Herman as clerk for the courts, instead of William Tom. The commission for the Finnish magistrates of Upland reads: "By virtue of authority derived unto me, I do hereby in his Majesty's name constitute, appoint and authorize you Mr. Peter Cock, Mr. Peter Rambo, Mr. Israel Helme, Mr. Lars Andriesson (Lasse the Finn), Mr. Wuolle Swain (Swenson) and Mr. Otto Ernest Cock, to be Justices of the Peace, in the Jurisdiction of Delaware River, and Dependences, and any three or more of you, to be a Court of Judicature. Giving you, and every of you, full power to act in the said Employment, according to law, and the trust reposed in you, of which all persons concerned, are to take notice, and give you the due respect and obedience, belonging to your places, in discharging of your duties. This commission to be of force for the space of one year, after the hereof, or till further order. Given under my hand and seal, in New York, the 23rd of September, in the 25th year of his Majesty's reign.

        "Anno Domini 1676.

E. Andros."         

By Delaware River in the commission is meaned the Finnish Settlements, while the other districts were called New Castle and Delaware Bay or the Hoornkill. The jurisdiction of the Finnish Court of Upland reached from Christiana Creek up to the head waters of the Delaware River in the Catskill Mountains. South of the Christiana Creek down to Bombay Hook belonged to the New Castle Court jurisdiction, a large part, if not the majority of the population of this district were also Finns, only in the town of New Castle the majority of the people were Dutch. The people in the New Jersey side of the Delaware River belonged to the jurisdiction of the court in the west side opposide which area they lived.

Captain Collier also brought with him an ordinance, drafted by Governor Andros, for the government of Delaware, in which it is said that the laws established by his Royal Highness shall be practiced in the Delaware River and precincts. A constable to be chosen in each place for the preservation of his Majesty's peace. That there be three courts held as formerly, viz., one in the town of New Castle and Upland and one in the Hoornkill. The said courts to consist of Justices of the Peace whereof three to make a coram, and to have the power of a Court of Sessions and decide all matters under twenty pounds without appeal, in which Court the oldest Justice is to preside, unless otherwise agreed amongst themselves. Above twenty pounds and for crime extending to life, limb or banishment, to admit appeal to the Court of Assizes (in New York). That all small matters under the value of five pounds may be determined by the Court without a jury, unless desired by the parties, as also matters of equity. That all necessary by-laws or orders (not repugnant to the laws of the government) made by the said courts, be of force and binding, for the space of one whole year, in the several places where made. That there be fitting books provided for the records in which all judicial proceedings to be duly and fairly entered as also all public orders from the governor, and the names of the magistrates and officers authorized, with the time of their admission. The said records to be kept in English, to which all persons concerned may have free recourse at due or seasonable time. That a fit person for secretary, when vacant, be recommended by each court to the governor for his approbation in whose hands the said records to be kept. All writs, warrants and proceedings at law, to be issued in his Majesty's name. No rates to be imposed or levies of money made, without the approbation of the governor, except in extraordinary occasion of which the governor be presently informed. A full record to be kept of all public incomes and expenses, which is to be yearly given to the General Court in the River to be passed and then sent to the governor. Persons desiring land were to make application to the court in whose bounds the land was situated and the courts were to grant no more than 50 acres per head, except in extraordinary occasion and were to issue warrants for the surveyor to survey the same. These warrants with the surveyor's certificates were to be sent to New York for the governor's approbation. The courts were to sit for the land affairs once a month or oftener.

The first court under the new commissions and ordinances sat at Upland on the 14th of November, 1676, where Captain John Collier and Captain Edmond Cantwell administered the oath (according to their warrant from Governor Andros of September 27th) to the justices of the court. All of the six Finnish justices were present. A new record of the court was opened by the new clerk Ephraim Herman, it begins with the names of the justices after which the different commissions and instructions from the governor are recorded. Then follows a court order that William Tom, the former clerk should deliver to the present clerk Ephraim Herman, the records and other public books and writings belonging to the Upland Court. After that a case was called in, at which Thomas Spry appears as plaintiff and the estate of Hendrik Johnsson as defendant. The plaintiff not appearing, the Court ordered a non suit to be entered against the plaintiff with costs. The old clerk William Tom then petitioned that execution be entered upon the record, against all those who shall deny to pay him old fees earned by him during the time that he was secretary of the court. The court ordered that execution should be granted against those who should prove unwilling to pay the said Mr. Tom's just fees. Justice Israel Helme petitioned for some recompense of having been the official interpreter at the River between the Indians and the English officers. The court answered to this that they will order the clerk to write to his honor the Governor about the same. Guardians were nominated for the children of Hendrik Johnsson, deceased, who were to make inventory of the estate and bring into the office of the court to be recorded.

The Court then thought fit to write to his Honor the Governor the following letter:

"Right Honorable Governor,
Sir:

"Since it had Graciously pleased your honor to commissionate us Justices of the Court and Jurisdiction at Upland in Delaware River, we find it our duty humbly to present to his honor the hereafter mentioned particulars for which we Intreat your honor's favorable grant and approbation, viz.:

"1. That your honor will be pleased to Confirm the orders made at the Last General Court here about the wolves' heads.

"2. That his Honor will prescribe a way and order how the charges of this Court when they sit may be found, considering that we all live at a very great distance from our court place, and the amercements (by reason of the small number of actions) amounting to little; and that your honor will be pleased to empower us, so that the old debts of the Court together with the debts of your honor's government may also be satisfied by the same way which your honor shall prescribe.

"Lastly Mr. Israel Helme has been often employed by Captain Cantwell, as interpreter with the Indians, who now makes application to this Court for some recompense for his trouble and loss of time of which we are all sensible. We therefore desire his honor either to prescribe a way how we may recompense him, or order the same other ways, so as your honor in his wisdom shall think fit, so praying God for his honor's health and prosperity we remain,

"Your Honor's humble and faithful subjects the magistrates of the Court at Upland.

"By order of the same,
November 14, 1676.                         Eph. Herman, clerk."

The Court made then accounts with Neels Laersen for the charges of keeping the court in his house and for the diet of the justices. They found that the same rose to 452 guilders, whereof 200 guilders had been paid during last year, the balance being 252 guilders.

After that the Court adjourned until the 2d Tuesday in March next and no sooner by reason of the season, and so is to be continued and be kept quarterly.

At this period there was over the world the idea prevailing that cities were the foundations and sources of wealth and progress. Laws were therefore enacted, privileges granted and people arbitrarily prevailed upon to move into certain cities to practice their trades. The system was believed in and followed by the patrons of the early Dutch and English colonies in America, with the result that the early settlers of these nations died for hunger by the hundreds.

The town of New Castle on the Delaware which had been founded by its patrons to exploit the river, had constantly tried to lay upon the Finns, who had been so far the only producers of wealth in that territory. But the ship captains persistently found their way to trade directly with the Finns. This made the merchants of New Castle to sit in their stores waiting for customers who did not come, while the ships were supplying the people and the merchants up the river. The magistrates of New Castle, being the merchants of the town, therefore on November 8, 1676, appealed to Governor Andros upon this injustice towards them, telling that two ships at the very movement were trading up the river. They say if the ships are allowed to trade up the river, the whole river will be ruined and become "as bad as Maryland." And they continue "wherefore we in all humility entreat your honor (considering the necessity for it) to prohibit the going of all sloops and vessels, up and down the River and Bay on the said accompt, as it was in the time of your Honor's predecessors and likewise that this town as being the only medium and best place of loading and unloading, and keeping stores for all merchants." For this and other favors they say "tradesmen and merchants will resort hither and the place will not only be populated but also the whole River will thrive by it."

At a council held in New York on November 20, 1676, it was resolved "that former orders, prohibiting sloops and vessels going up the River above New Castle to trade, be duly observed as heretofore."

On the same day an order made about killing of wolves at the Delaware was confirmed by the governor. The wolves had become so over frequent and had been doing daily damage to sheep, cattle and hogs, that it was decided in the General Court held on May 9-11, 1676, in New Castle, to pay forty guilders of each wolf's scalp brought to any of the magistrates on the River. To defray this and other public charges, all fines since the second coming of the English rule, up to the last day of 1676, were granted by the governor to be applied for public uses, also that a levy be made of one penny in the pound upon every man's estate, to be taxed by indifferent persons thereunto appointed by the respective courts and by the said courts to be disposed of accordingly whereof an account be given to the governor.

On March 13, 1677, there was a court again held in Upland. Of the Finnish Justices present were Peter Cock, Peter Rambo, Israel Helme, Lasse Andries (Lasse the Finn) and Otto Ernest (Cock).

The first case handled in this court was an attachment of goods for debt. Sheriff Cantwell being the plaintiff and John Ashman the defendant. The case was continued until the next court. The High Sheriff then appeared as plaintiff against an Englishman Richard Duckert and a negro woman, a servant of Lasse Cock. This case also was continued until the next court. Justice Israel Helme then appeared as plaintiff against Oele Oolsen (Kukko). The defendant is accused of an attack upon Justice Helme. A witness Lace Coleman testifies that he had seen it and that Israel Helme's shirt was torn all in pieces. The defendant remaining absent, the court ordered him to appear at the next court to defend himself, or in case of further default judgment will be passed against him according to law and merit. Thereafter Morten Mortensen appears as plaintiff against Mouns Staeck. The defendant is accused of killing the plaintiff's ox. The witnesses not appearing, the case was continued until the next court when the witnesses were ordered to appear upon fine. The same plaintiff again appear against the same defendant in a case of assault and battery. The witnesses being heard the case was continued until further order and the parties were recommended to settle their differences in the meantime. In the next case Anthony Nealson was the plaintiff and Lace Dalboo the defendant. The plaintiff not appearing by himself or by attorney a non suit was ordered against the plaintiff with costs. A petition was presented by Johannes d'Haes in which he says of having obtained a patent from the late Governor Lovelace upon a piece of land at the bend of the river, between the land of Oole Fransen and Company and the creek called Naaman's Creek; which said land was not yet surveyed, so that the petitioner is uncertain of the quantity of his land and therefore desired that the court would be pleased to give order and issue a warrant for the laying out of this land. The court did grant the request and that warrant will be issued for the survey of the land.

The charges for keeping the court in the house of Neales Laersen and the diet of the justices and their guest Captain Collier amounted this day 100 guilders, which sum was allowed by the court.

The court adjourned until the 2d Tuesday of June next. After which there is a land deal, Jan Hendrickse acknowledging a deed for a parcel of land transferred by him to William Orian. The latter again conveys half of the land to Michill Izard.

After the court session there was a council held about the Indian affairs by the commander and the justices. A news had reached the River about the coming of the Simeco (Seneca) Indians to fetch the Susquehannos that were keeping themselves amongst the Delaware River Indians. It was concluded upon the motion of Rinowehan the Indian Sachamore for the most quiet Indians at the River, that Captain Collier and Justice Israel Helme go up to Sachamexin (Shackamaxon) where a great number of Simeco and other Indians had gathered and that they endeavor to persuade the Simecos, the Susquehannos and the Delaware River Indians to send each a Sachamore or Deputy to his honor the Governor at New York, and that justice Israel Helme goes with them to hear and receive the governor's resolutions and answer to the demands of the Indians.

A complaint had been made about the order of prohibiting ships to go up the River in Delaware to trade among the Finnish farmers, therefore Governor Andros wrote on April 6, 1677, to Commander Collier, granting liberty to vessels to go up the River as formerly "for this year's effects or former debts."

In compliance of the order of the General Court in 1675, the Finnish magistrates had caused a church be built in Wiccaco, for the people leaving above or about the Schuylkill River. This was done by converting to this purpose a block house, that the Finns had built few years earlier for retreat in case of an Indian attack. But the Rev. Lokenius had then three churches to attain which he in his old age could not very well do. The Finns therefore were obliged to obtain Jacobus Fabritius to officiate in the Wiccaco church, he being now allowed to resume his office as minister. The Rev. Fabritius preached his first sermon in the Wiccaco church on the Trinity Sunday, 1677. He officiated in the Dutch language with which the Finns had become acquainted during the Dutch rule of the Delaware and by contact with the Dutch colonists during the later years.

On the 13th of June, 1677, the Upland Court again convened, all the Finnish justices being present. Among the cases handled in this court was that an Englishman John Test brought his slave named William Still, a tailor by trade, whom he acknowledged of having sold to Captain Edmond Cantwell for the space and term of four years, beginning from the first of April last. The said William Still declared in the court to be willing to serve the captain the above said term of four years.

The two cases between Morten Mortense and Mouns Staeck, which were continued from the last court, had been settled and the parties had agreed to pay half of the costs each. Mortense and Staeck were neighbors, living at Calceon Hook. The former had come from the province of Pohjanmaa, Finland, and the latter from the city of Turku (Åbo), Finland. Mr. Staeck was a new arrival to the Delaware Colony, having earlier lived in New Amsterdam, where he in 1660 was a house owner. He married Magdalenja van Tellickleus and moved to the new village of Harlem where he with another Finn, Johan Gogu, was running a brick factory, being also one of the magistrates of the town. In 1665 Staeck was heavily fined for beating the cattle herder of the village and moved thereafter to Elizabeth, N. J., as farmer. Later he moved to the Finnish colony at the Delaware, but his three sons, Peter, Mathew and Israel, settled in their home town of New York, where their descendants use the name Stuck.

The Upland Court sat two days at this session. On the second day, June 14th, Lasse Cock brought in an account of expenses incurred during the conference with the Indians at the Finnish village of Shackamaxon, in the spring. It appears that Captain Collier and Israel Helme and some other Finnish magistrates had lived in his house in Shackamaxon during four days, from March 14 to 18. Also that he had spent for gifts given to the Indians at this conference. His expenses being 250 guilders, which the court ordered to be paid of the levy that was to be laid.

A new Englishman in the colony, John Ashman, who had ventured into considerable business deals, appears in financial difficulties and several judgments in this and following courts are entered against him.

On July 8, 1677, Captain Collier was censured by Governor Andros in a letter, for going to sit as judge in the courts. The captain was told to act according to his known authority. On August 13th a commission was given by the governor to Captain Christopher Billop to be commander and sub-collector of customs at the Delaware. In a letter the new commander brought with him to the magistrates of New Castle, Governor Andros says: "I find no need of a General or High Court in the river, every court having power to make fitting rates for the highways, poor, or other necessaries, as is practiced in England, and unless otherwise ordered by said courts the clerk proper to be receiver and pay all by order of court, for which you need no further authority or directions from the governor, than former orders and rules for keeping due accompts to be yearly examined and past in court and copies remitted here."

The western New Jersey had fallen into the management of William Penn and others, who sold lands for the settlement of the country. Two companies of Quakers, altogether 230 souls, arrived with a ship on the 16th of August, 1677, to the Delaware and soon after landed in the Finnish settlement at Racoon Creek. Not enough dwellings could be found in the settlement to accommodate so many persons, so that the cow-stalls and barns had to be converted for the shelter of the people. Three purchases of land were made, by the new settlers, from the Indians by the aid of Israel Helme, Peter Rambo and Lars (Lasse) Cock, who recommended the newcomers favorably to the Indians. Those of the new emigrants coming from London selected their land in the vicinity where formerly stood Fort Nassau, present Gloucester City, and those coming from Yorkshire occupied the land from Rancocas Creek to the Falls of Delaware. Both parties settled however together to live at the Burlington Island, where they built a town. In October another ship arrived bringing 114 new emigrants to the Yorkshire Colony and in November one more ship arrived from London, bringing 60 or 70 passengers, some of whom settled at Salem and some at Burlington.

A court was again held at Upland on September 11, 1677, all the Finnish magistrates being present. In the last court and in this a larger number of cases appear than ever before and many grants for lands were made in this session, more than three thousand acres being granted, mostly within the area of the present city of Philadelphia.

The clerk of the court was ordered to send a copy of the public debts to the governor, which was done on September 27, 1677. The debts were:

"To  Neels Laersen for the Court expenses to this day, except 200 guilders already paid to him by Captain Cantwell guilders 639 guilders
"To  Lace Cock for expenses by the Commander and Simico Indians last spring, the account having been allowed by the Court 250 "
"The  wolves heads in this Court not all, brought in yet but computed by the Court to 420 "
"To  the clerk allotted by the Court for his several extraordinary services (besides salary) 200 "
"To  Justice Israel Helme for his several services to the country as interpreter with the Indians 400 "
"To  Captain Cantwell for having paid to Neels Laersen for the accommodations of the Court 200 "
"To  Justice Otto Ernest (Cock) for sundry expenses on the public account 300 "
"To  Lasse Cock for expenses when his honor the governor was 112 "
"To  Peter Rambo for his expenses when his honor the governor was here 800 "
"To  Captain Cantwell, the Court having proffered to pay him 400 guilders (as a gift) which he refused, so that this is left to his honor (the governor) to judge of
       "Total in Guilders 3321 "

In October, 1677, Governor Andros was preparing to go to England and to return in the spring. He addressed therefore a letter to Commander Billop, warning him to do anything else than he is authorized and ordered. A letter was also sent to the magistrates of Upland, New Castle and Hoornkill, informing about the governor's departure. The letter to the magistrates of Upland reads:

"Gentlemen:

"I have written to the commander and this is to acquaint you also that having his Royal Highness' leave for my own occasion this winter so as to return in the spring, all things being all well throughout the Government. I intend, God willing, going home in a ship bound here for London, leaving all things to remain in all parts of the government as now settled, and therefore recommend your being very vigilant and careful (which I will not doubt) for the due administration of justice in your several stations and particularly that inferior officers do, their duty for the good and quiet of their respective places according to law. Any appeals to be to the Court of Assizes, which on extraordinaries may be sent to the secretary Captain Nicholls here, and if occasion to be communicated to the Council. I am,

"Your affectionate friend to serve you,
              E. Andros. "

A Court was held at Upland on Tuesday the 13th of November, 1677, all the Finnish justices being present. On account of the new English emigrants there was a large number of cases to be handled in this session, the law suits being mostly debts for business transactions, as money was not used the goods promised in place of money were often delayed. A large number of new grants for lands were issued again, totaling 2,550 acres, mostly in the neighborhood of the Schuylkill River. A petition was also addressed "to the Worshipful Court of Upland" by twenty-four persons, mostly Finns, who desired to build a farming colony near the Delaware falls. In their petition they say "that they the petitioners being all inhabitants and for the most part born and brought up in this River and parts have a great inclination (as well for the strength of the River, as for the convenience of travel and other ways) to settle together in a town at the west side of this River just below the falls, do therefore humbly request this worshipful Court to move the case to his honor the governor that they the petitioners may have each of them in lots laid out one hundred acres of land with a fit proportion of marsh, as also that a fit place for a town may be laid out, in the most convenient place there about with such privileges and liberties for their encouragement as shall be thought fit and that the same may be confirmed unto them by his honor the governor and the petitioners will forthwith settle accordingly."

The Court promised to send the petition to his honor the governor, with recommendations and request in behalf of the petitioners.

The former clerk of the court William Tom, who was present, was ordered to deliver the records of the court to the new clerk Ephraim Herman. This was the second time he was requested to dq so and he promised to do it, but he never did and the records are lost to the history.

The taxation to pay the public debts was taken up for final discussion and they found that twenty-six guilders had to be collected from each of the 136 taxable persons within the Upland jurisdiction. It was ordered to be paid in either of the following species: Wheat at five guilders per scipple (bushel) and rye and barley at four. Indian corn at three guilders per scipple, tobacco at eight stivers per pound. Pork at eight and bacon at sixteen stivers per pound. Or else in wampum or skins at current prices. The court further ordered and empowered the high sheriff Captain Cantwell to receive and collect the tax, allowing him five shillings per pound for his work.

The court allowed to Neels Laersen, in whose house the court was held and where the justices and officers had their meals, two hundred guilder for the sitting of this court.

The court adjourned till the second Tuesday of March next.

In the record then follows a letter from the governor to the Upland magistrates, which reads:

"New York, August 14, 1677.

"Gentlemen:

"These are to desire and authorize you to treat with the Indian Proprietors for the purchasing of a small tract of land which I am informed is not yet purchased and is about half Dutch or two English miles long, along the River side between your land and the late purchase up to the falls, which done I shall forthwith take care for settling those parts. I do not think of making any change in your Court this year, not doubting your continued care, for the king's and country's service, and remain,

"Your affectionate friend,
      "E. Andros."

Then follows a declaration by the governor, which says that:

"By virtue of my authority under his Royal Highness I do hereby desire and request all persons that have or claim any land in Delaware River and Bay that they do without delay or as soon as conveniently may be, make a due return to the clerk of the Court in whose jurisdiction said land lies, of the quantity and situation of their land, according to the surveyors' plats or cards thereof, and the said Courts to make a return of the whole unto me, and whether seated and improved, that such wanting grants or patents may have them dispatched and sent. This order to be published in the several courts which to take care therein, and surveyors also to give notice and see it be observed where he shall know or find the defect acturn. In New York, this 13th day of August, 1677,

"E. Andros."

The following resolution of the governor and council was read for the second time in the court.

"Fort James, 19th of May, 1677.

"Governor and whole Council.

"Resolved and ordered that pleading attorneys be no longer allowed to practice in the government, but for the depending causes."

The house of Neels Laersen becoming too small for the court, it was ordered that Hans Yrjanen, captain of the Finnish militia of Upland, with the men belonging to his company fit up and finish the house of defence at Upland fit for the Court to sit in, for the next session. This house of defence was the block house built by the Finns during the time of Governor Lovelace, for a retreat in case of Indian attack.

On March 12, 1678, the Upland Court sat in the House of Defence, all the Finnish magistrates being present. On account of the long interval in the court sessions and for the new English emigrants there were now a great number of cases to be handled. Two cases of slavery appears in this session. Robert Hutchinsson as attorney for his brother Ralph, sold to Israel Helme an Englishman William Bromfield for the term of four years. The price being 1,200 guilders. The above named slave William Bromfield promised in the court to serve the Justice Israel Helme faithfully and truly for the said term of four years. Another Englishman, William Goat was brought to the court by Anthony Nealson who had bought him from Moens Petersen for the term of three years servitude. The slave promised to serve his new master honestly and truly the above said term of three years.

New land grants were made, in this court to the amount of 2,100 acres, mostly on the Schuylkill River, and land conveyances between parties in the town of Upland was recorded.

"It being represented to the Court that by reason of the peoples daily taking up land near the mill of Carkoen Creek, the said mill would be left destitute of any land to get timber for the use of the said mill, the Court therefore ordered that on the west side of the said mill branch should be laid out 100 acres of land for the said mill's use." This was the mill erected by the Finns in 1643, for the public use and was the first water mill in the Delaware country.

The expenses of the court were now smaller, on account of the new court house, Neels Laersen being allowed seventy guilders only, for the diet of the justices and officers.

The high sheriff was ordered to bring in his account of the receipt of the taxes, on the 25th day of March, instant, for which the court appointed a meeting to be held by them on the first day of April at Upland.

The court then adjourned until the second Tuesday of June next.

The meeting for the settlement of accounts with the high sheriff was held at the house of the president of the Upland Court, Peter Cock, in Passayunk, on April 3, 1678. The justices Peter Cock, Peter Rambo, Israel Helme and Oele Swenson were present at the meeting.

On the 18th and 19th day of June the Upland Court sat in the House of Defence, but four pages of the original record being missing, all the transactions are not known. A great number of debts in business transactions were handled in this session, and several persons in Moyamensing and Justice. Oele Swenson were granted to take up twenty-five acres of marsh each.

Another case of slavery appears in this court, an Englishman, Benjamin Goodman, a slave of Justice Oele Swenson, appeared and desired to be free as he said he had served his time. The case was continued for the next session for witness.

An insane asylum was ordered to be established. Jan Cornelissen of Amesland complaining in the court that his son Erik had become insane, and he being a poor man could not take care of his unhappy son. The court therefore ordered that three or four men be hired to build a little Blockhouse at Amesland where the madman can be placed and in the next court a levy will be laid for the building of the house and maintaining of the madman, according to laws of the government.

Land conveyances are recorded for Englishmen in the Finnish town of Marcus Hook. The whole tract of the town had been confirmed by patent from Governor Andros on March 28, 1676, to six Finns, among which was Hans Hofman who formerly lived in New York and came to collect money at the Delaware when the Finnish church in New York was built in 1672.

The court resolved to impose a levy of five guilders per head for every taxable person to pay the expenses of the court. The tax was to be paid before the sixth day of October next, at Tinicum Island to Justice Otto Ernest Cock, who now owned the island and the Printz Hall of the former Swedish governor Printz.

The court adjourned till the second Tuesday of September next.

During the absence of Governor Andros, Commander Billop and Walter Wharton the surveyor had behaved quite self-righteously and bad overstepped their commissions. On the 8th of March, 1678, complains were made against Billop by the magistrates of New Castle, that the commander uses the fort as a stable, and keeps the court room filled with hay and fodder, that he keeps hogs in the fort and debars the court from sitting in their usual place in the fort, besides that he makes use of the militia about his own private affairs. After the dispute with the court the commander promises to remove his horses. In the latter part of July, the governor was expected to return from London, therefore on the 17th of that month a long list of complaints was drafted by the New Castle magistrates against Commander Billop and Surveyor Wharton. Wharton is accused of neglecting his office to a great obstruction and hindrance of the people, that he had performed, while being a reader in the New Castle church, his own marriage, that he gives lands to people who have not obtained any grant for the same in the courts, and in one instance had confiscated a man's land for himself only for the surveyor's fees. Against Commander Billop they say that since his coming to the River he had all along publicly blamed and defamed the governor, and during the controversies with Major Fenwick about the lands and authority in the east side of the Delaware River, the commander had contrary to his duty stood up for and held with the major, so that the inhabitants'of the eastern shore have not known whom to obey. That the commander in several occasions had declared that he has the power to command the courts. That the commander had confiscated the goods, horses and swine of several persons without valid cause or any lawful proceedings and had converted the same to his own use. Also that the commander had issued marriage licenses, whereby the common usages of the Delaware River Colony were laid aside.

On September 3, 1618, Captain Billop was ordered by Governor Andros to appear in New York, leaving the charge of the military and civil matters to Justice Peter Alrichs. Thomas Woolaston was appointed sub-collector of customs and on December 15, Philip Pocock was appointed surveyor.

The Upland Court sat again on November 12, 1678, all the Finnish justices, except Israel Helme being present. An order from Governor Andros about lands that had been taken up but not settled, was proclaimed in the open court.

A case in which 167 guilders was involved, in business deals between William Orian and John D'Haes, that had been in the court before, was debated before the jury of twelve men and the case was continued to the next court when the parties were ordered to bring in their account books.

A large number of Englishmen appeared in the court in connection of business debts, and 1,200 acres of land was granted for new farms.

The slave of Justice Oele Swenson, Benjamin Goodman, who had been bought from Maryland, was freed, Lasse Cock his witness being of the opinion that he had been sold for three years' servitude.

It was considered very necessary that a new water mill be built at the Schuylkill River and there being no fitter place than the fall called Captain Hans Moens' falls, the court therefore is of the opinion that Captain Hans Moens ought to build a mill there (as he says that he will) or else suffer another to build it for the common good of the part of the country.

Captain Lawrence (Lasse) Cock appeared in the court acknowledging the sale of his plantation in the Finnish town of Shackamaxon to Elizabet Kinsey, the daughter and heir of John Kinsey, late of Herefordshire, England.

The town of Shackamaxon originally contained 1,800 acres of land besides marshland and was owned by six Finnish families, each having equal part of the land and marsh.

The Upland Court this day ordered that every person should within two months, as far as his land reaches, make good and passable ways, from neighbor to neighbor with bridges where it needs, to the end that neighbors on occasion may come together. Those neglecting the order will forfeit twenty-five guilders.

The boundary between the Upland and New Castle Counties had been the Christiana Creek, but it seems that the New Castle people desired to get part of the population of the Upland County whose population was constantly increasing. The limits and divisions were today agreed upon and settled in the Upland Court between John Moll the president of New Castle Court and the Upland magistrates. The County of Upland was to begin from the north side of Oele Fransen's Creek (Stone Creek), lying in the bend of the Delaware River, above Verdrietige Hook, and from the said creek over to the Single Tree Point (Oldman's Point) on the eastside of the Delaware.

Town lots were now sold in Upland, as complaints had been made to the court by the church wardens that Neels Laersen had taken in, with the lots that he had bought from the Rev. Lokenius in Upland, some of the land preserved for the church purposes. It was therefore ordered that Neels Laersen shall have what belongs to the two lots that he had bought, but what he had taken in more he must leave out annexed to the church lots.

A number of surveyors returns were brought in, which were recorded and ordered to be sent to New York. The court adjourned till the second Tuesday of March, 1679. On the 12th and the 13th of March, 1679, the Upland Court was in session, the justices Peter Cock, Israel Helme, Otto Ernest Cock and Lasse Andries being present.

The vexatious case between William Orian and Johannes D'Haes was the first one handled. Both parties produced their account books and the accounts of William Orian were found to be defective, he was then sentenced to pay the costs and 150 guilders for damages to the defendant.

There were a large number of cases in this session, many of which were withdrawn and some were dismissed. The former Commander Christopher Billop is sued for a horse that he had taken to his plantation in Staten Island against the wishes of its owner Peter Bacon. The estate of former Surveyor Walter Whartou in Upland was sued for house rent and other debts, he himself being dead. A school master Edmund Draufton sued Dunck Williams for 200 guilders for having taught the defendant's children to read the Bible, according to agreement. The Rev. Lokenius is sued for two small debts, and the Rev. Fabricius is granted to take up 300 acres of land.

The land transactions are getting very numerous at this time, the land speculation having started in the towns of Marcus Hook and Upland. More than a thousand acres of new lands were granted and several conveyances of land were recorded in this session of the court.

Justice Peter Rambo claimed by a late grant of the Upland Court, a certain tract of land at Wiceaco and Justice Oele Swensen and his brothers Swen and Andries (sons of Swen Gunnarson), pleaded that the same land was within the bounds of their patent, which difference together with the allegations of both parties were heard and the court ordered that since the Swensen brothers have the same land in their patent, which is of old standing and that Peter Rambo's grant was but of late, therefore the Swensens or Swensons do keep the land and in case more land be found within the bound of the said patent, than is set down, the Swensons to have the preference to take it up before others.

Neeles Laersen was ordered to leave open the street between the Upland Creek and the House of Defence or the Country House, where the courts were held, between this and the next court and in default thereof to be fined according to the discretion of the court.

The court adjourned till the second Tuesday in June next.

In the summer of 1679, there was an epidemic ravaging in the country, therefore the court session had to be adjourned from June to September and from September again to November. On November 25th the court finally convened and was in session two days. The justices present in this sitting of the court were the presiding judge or president Peter Cock and the justices Israel Helme, Otto Ernest Cock and Lasse Andries. While Peter Rambo and Oele Swenson were missing.

The case of the former commander Captain Christopher Billop and Peter Bacon was taken up again and Bacon was allowed 1,080 guilders for damages sustained when Captain Billop was keeping his horse. The captain, who had his plantation in Staten Island, had a servant in the custody of Lasse Cock, which was attached for the benefit of Bacon.

The Dutch trader Peter Jegou declared in the court that in the year 1668 he obtained a permit and grant of Governor Philip Carteret; to take up the land called Leasy Point, lying opposite Mattinagcong Island (Burlington Island), to settle himself there and to build and keep a house of entertainment for the accommodation of travelers. All which the plaintiff accordingly had done and moreover had purchased of Cornelis Jorissen, Jurian Macelis and Jan Claessen their houses and lands at Leasy Point, which lands had been given them by the Dutch governor (?) in the year 1666. For the lands Governor Carteret had promised patent to Jegou and he had been in lawful possession of the property until the year 1670, at which time he was plundered by the Indians and became utterly ruined "as is well known to all the world," so that he then for a time was forced to leave his land and possession aforesaid and to seek his livelihood and to repair his losses in other places. He was therefore forced to leave his land with the intention to return when occasion should present, but now "with the arrival of these new comers called Quakers out of England, these defendants Thomas Wright and Godfrey Hancock have violently entered upon your plaintiff's said land and there have by force planted corn, cut timber for houses, mowed hay and made fences notwithstanding that they were forewarned by your plaintiff's friend Henry Jacobs, in your plaintiff's behalf, in the presence of Captain Edmund Cantwell, and afterwards by the plaintiff summoned before the magistrates of Burlington, who making no end of it, the case was with the said magistrates' and defendants' consent removed here before your worships, wherefore plaintiff humbly craves your worships to order the defendants and all others not to molest the plaintiff in the quiet possession of his land."

The defendants in the court declared to be very willing to stand to the verdict and judgment of the Upland Court, whereupon the court, after having heard the debates of both parties and examined all the papers concerning the land, expressed the opinion that since Peter Jegou had Governor Carteret's grant and had been in quiet possession of the land, before the land was sold by John Berkeley to Edward Bylling and that he the said Jegou had also bought the land and paid the Indians' for the same, that therefore Peter Jegou ought to enjoy the land and appurtenances peaceably and quietly, according to grant and purchase.

Only three hundred acres of new land was granted in this session of the court, which indicates that all the choice land along the Delaware River and the Schuylkill had been occupied. There was a great speculation going on about the lands near the River, as can be seen of the following: John Test, merchant of Upland, acknowledged in the court of having sold his plantation in Upland to Richard Friends of Weymouth, England. The land had been first granted by patent from Governor Francis Lovelace, on June 7, 1672, to Neeles Mattson and since by the said Mattson sold to John Test, by John Test to Richard Guy, by Richard Guy to John Hayles, by John Hayles again to John Test and now by John Test to Richard Friends. James Sanderlin as attorney of Richard Friends, acknowledged in the court the assignment and conveyance of the above said plantation to Stephen Chambers of Weymouth, England, Stephen Chambers having received deed upon the land, made in New York on August 8, 1679. At present William Oxle (Ogle?) was a tenant upon the farm and James Sanderlin (Sandyland) declared that he as attorney for Stephen Chambers will take possession of the plantation with the cattle and appurtenances.

Jonas Nielsen appeared in the court asking to be paid 106 guilders as expenses for the burial of Peter Veltscheerder and Christian Samuels, who were murdered by the Indians at Tinnagtong Islan (Burlington Island) in the service of Peter Alrichs, in 1672. The court was of the opinion that either Mr. Alrichs whose servants they were must pay the expenses or else the said Jonas should be paid out of the estate of the deceased, if there was any.

It being represented to the court by the church wardens of Tinicum and Wiccaco churches, that the fences about the church yards and other church buildings are much out of repairs and that some of the people, members of the said churches are neglecting to make the same up. The court having taken the premises into consideration, found it necessary to order, authorize and empower the church wardens of the respective two churches to order and summon the respective members of the two churches from time to time and at all times when it shall be found necessary to build, make good and keep in repair the said churchyard fences, as also the churches and all other appurtenances thereof. And if any of the said members upon warning do prove neglectine in the doing of their proportion to the same, they and each of them shall forfeit fifty guilders for each such neglect, to be levied out of their goods and chattels, lands and teniments.

The court, after having handled a large number of cases, adjourned till the second Tuesday of March 1680.

On March 10, 1680, a court again was held in Upland, all the Finnish magistrates being present.

Among the debt cases handled in this court was a sum of forty-six guilders, Francis Steevens being the plaintiff and Claes Jansen the defendant. The court ordered the debt paid, twenty guilders in wheat and twenty-six in pumpkins at sixteen guilders per hundred.

The surveyor of Upland County, Richard Noble, delivered his commission from Governor Andros, dated December 15, 1679.

Only 700 acres of new lands were granted at this session, besides 100 acres granted to Peter Nealson for a watermill.

Justice Israel Helme acknowledged the sale of his house and plantation at Upland to James Sanderlins. The deed had been made on March 9, 1680.

The Duke of York's law allowed to the court for every judgment two shillings and six pence. This had not been required so far but now the court found itself compelled to collect it, to defray the expenses of the diet of the judges during the court sessions. The Under-Sheriff William Warner was, therefore empowered to collect the said sum for each judgment since June 13, 1677. The whole sum of the court fees amounted to five pounds or two hundred guilders and was to be collected before the next court day.

The court adjourned till the second Tuesday of June next.

Although the colonists in the Duke of York territories in America had made great progress during the rule of Governor Andros, the duke apparently was not satisfied to his income from the exploitation of the colonies, therefore on May 24, 1680, a commission was given by the duke to one John Levin, to proceed to America and "by all good and reasonable ways and means, to apply himself to inquire and find out all the estate, rents and reveauec, profits and perquisites, which in any sort do of right belong and appertain to me (the duke), and arise in any of those places."

On the same day a letter was written by the duke to Governor Andros, in which he says that having had lately some propositions tendered to him about "farming out" (leasing) his revenues in New York and therefore sends Mr. Levin to make thorough inquiry relating thereunto. The duke requests Governor Andros to come to England by the first opportunity, the better to inform the duke in all particulars, and in the meantime leave Lieutenant Anthony Brockholls in charge of the government.

Meanwhile all things were going on as usual on the Delaware New Commissions for magistrates or justices were issued by Governor Andros on May 28, 1680. A new county became also established on the Delaware, that of St. Jones, whose jurisdiction reached from the south side of Duck Creek to north side of Cedar Creek, at the Delaware Bay, in present State of Delaware.

The Upland Court convened on June 8, 1680, and the new commission for magistrates was publicly read. Here is the copy of the commission.

"Sir Edmund Andros, Knight, Lieutenant and Governor-General and vice-admiral under his Royal Highness James Duke of York and Albany etc. in America. By virtue of the authority derived unto me I do hereby in his majesty's name constitute, appoint and authorize you Mr. Otto Ernest Cock, Mr. Israel Helme, Mr. Henry Jones, Mr. Lasse Cock and Mr. Geo. Brown to be Justices of the Peace in the Jurisdiction of Upland Court or County in Delaware River and dependencies and any three or more of you to be a Court of Judicature giving you and every one of you full power to act in the said employment according to law and the trust reposed in you, of which all persons are to take notice, and give you the due respect and obedience belonging to your places in discharging of your duties.

"This commission to be of force for the space of one year from the date hereof or till further order. Given under my hand and seal of the Province in New York this 28th day of May Anno Domini 1680.

E. Andros."

"Past the office,
   Mathias Nicolls, Secretary."

Among the justices we now miss the venerable names of Peter Cock, Peter Rambo, Lasse Andreas and Oele Swenson. Otto Ernest Cock hereafter appears as the presiding judge or president of the Upland Court, in his father's place. Captain Lasse Cock was also a son of Peter Coek.

The new justices were sworn to their office, except George Brown who was not present.

Only a small number of cases appear in this court. One thousand acres of land was granted, of which two hundred acres was for Peter Cock. The surveyor, Richard Noble brought a number of certificates in of his surveys, which were approved and ordered to be sent to New York.

In order to defray the expenses of the court a tax of one stipple, of wheat or five guilders was levied to be paid yearly by each taxable person. It was also ordered that all the arrears of the former taxations be delivered and paid to Justice Otto Ernest Cock at the estate of Tinicum Island and "such who prove neglective to be fetched by the constable by way of restraint." Andries Homman (Andries Andriesson the Finn) appears as the constable of the Upland County.

The Upland Court now found the town of Upland to be situated in the lower end of their county. Therefore for the greater convenience of the people it was decided that the court hereafter will sit in the Finnish town of Kingsesse (Kingsessing) on the Schuylkill River.

The court adjourned till October 13, 1680.

On October 13, the court convened at Kingsesse, all the justices being present and George Brown, who was absent in the last sesssion of the court, was sworn into the office of a justice.

Among the cases handled in this court was Moens Staeck being fined one thousand guilders for slandering Justice Otto Ernest Cock. The defendant asked for forgiveness and at the request of Justice Cock the fine was remitted.

Former Justice Peter Rambo appeared in the court as defendant in a dispute about a marsh, upon which Rambo had a patent. The jury brought in a verdict for Rambo's favor and it was allowed to pass by the court.

Seven hundred acres of new lands were granted in this court.

The court found it necessary for the due preservation of peace that one more constable be appointed and authorized to officiate between the Schuylkill and Neshaminy Kill. It was therefore ordered and resolved and Mr. Erik Cock (son of Peter Cock) was nominated, appointed and sworn as constable for one year till another be appointed in his place.

The court likewise found it necessary that some fit persons be appointed as overseers of the highways and roads and as overseers and viewers of all fences throughout the Upland County. It was therefore resolved and Mr. John Cock (son of Peter Cock' and Lasse Dalbo were appointed and sworn overseers and viewers of the highways, roads and fences within the county for one year or till others be appointed in their said places.

Richard Noble, the surveyor of Upland County brought it his certificate of a survey made by him upon the governor's special order, dated June 1, 1680, for the benefit of Ephraim Herman and Lasse Cock, on a tract of land called Hataorackan containing 602 acres. The survey had been made on August 4, 1680 and the tract was later included in the Pennsbury Manor.

The court adjourned till the second Tuesday of March 1681.

On March 8, 1681 the court convened in the Town of Kingsessing, the justices present were Otto Ernest Cock, Henry Jones and Lasse Cock.

In this court 1,890 acres of new lands were granted, several of these grants were up the river, in the neighborhood of the Delaware Falls.

Not many cases appear in this court. The next court day was to be the second Tuesday of June 1681.

Publication: E. A. Louhi: The Delaware Finns or The First Permanent Settlements in Pennsylvania, Delaware, West New Jersey, and Eastern Part of Maryland. New York, The Humanity Press Publishers. 1925, 331 pages.

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