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Alaska's Second Evangelical Lutheran Parish, 1900-1918. Six Swedish Augustana Synod Pastors Pick Up the Helm of Their Three Russian Era Predecessors, Serving in Douglas, Territory of Alaska

Maria Jarlsdotter Enckell

Introduction

In 1959 Hugo L. Mäkinen published an article under the title of "Alaskan kuusi suomalaispappia" in the Finnish Church paper Kotimaa.1 The article offered the reader a rather sketchy vision on the three Finnish pastors Uno Cygnaeus, Gabriel Plathán, and Georg Gustaf Winter, and their toil in the service of the Russian American Company's colonial Evangelical Lutheran parish/pastorate based in New Archangelsk/Sitka between the years 1840-1865. Mäkinen also mentioned by name the Finnish pastors Ilmonen, Warmanen, and Lindström, as having been recorded in post-era Russian Alaska during the years 1890-1916. Mäkinen then ended his article with a request for more information on the above mentioned six pastors, stating that any information, however trivial it might seem to be, was much appreciated.

Informed that Mäkinen2 resided in Helsinki I called him up to ask if he ever had received any responses to his requests for information. He kindly responded he could not recall having received any.

As Mäkinen's article is still often referred to in publications, and thus is still so to speak on the "Cutting edge", I would like to offer Mr. Mäkinen the following in a much delayed response to his request made in 1959, by dedicating this article to Editor Hugo Leander Mäkinen.

The Lutheran Church during Alaska's post transition years: 1865-1918.

In Scandinavian Emigration to Russian Alaska, 1800-1867,3 I stated that in 1839, the St. Petersburg based Russian-American Company, had obtained permission from the Tzar to establish an Evangelical Lutheran Pastorate with church building, to serve the company's ever increasing numbers of Lutheran employees at its many work-sites situated on the Russian North Pacific rim. The pastor and the church-building was to be placed in the Company's colonial headquarters, Novo Archangelsk/Sitka. At that time I also mentioned that this Church (Pastorate) was administered by the Russian Evangelical Lutheran Church's St. Petersburg Synod, with its own headquarters placed in the Empire's capital, St. Petersburg.4

Additionally, I mentioned that three Finnish-born pastors served this church between 1840 and 1865. They were: Uno Cygnaeus (1840-1845); Gabriel Plathán (1845-1852); Georg Gustaf Winter (1852-1865).5 I also stated that one of the position's criteria was that each pastor could hold services in Finnish, Swedish, and German, reflecting the diversity of this Northern European Lutheran community, now operating within the larger Russian community in the Russian American Company's North Pacific colonies including at sites in Alaska and sites throughout the Siberian side coastal regions. Additionally, preserved documents show this parish/pastorate served many native Estonians and Latvians, providing them with Bibles and New Testaments in their native tongues etc.6 The church-services held were supported by the following organists: The Balt, Andreas Hoeppner (1840-1844), and the Finns, Aaron Sjöström (1844-1852), and Otto Reinhold Rehn (1852-1865). Serving as Sextons were Sjöström (both under Hoeppner's time and his own), and Otto Reinhold Rehn.7

By January 1862 the Company's operating charter had expired, and, in its desire to sell Alaska, the Empire was by now deeply involved in negotiations with the United States.8 The sale took place in 1867, with the official transfer ceremonies held in Sitka on October 18 that year.9 However, documents show that already by 1858 the Russian-American Company's far-flung communities were well aware of the impending sale.10 By 1862, many of its employees were diverted to Company sites on the Siberian side, where they were involved in the process of dismantling its holdings. This seems to have been completed by 1864-1865.11

It has been established that Pastor Georg Gustaf Winter departed Sitka onboard the company's round-the-world sailing ship CEZAREVICH, on April 14, 1865.12 This clearly indicates that this Russian Evangelical Lutheran pastorate was by that date dissolved.13 However, there were still many Evangelical Lutherans in Sitka, and more were hired in St. Petersburg, to speed up the dismantling-work both at Sitka, and at its many other sites in Alaska.14 Richard A. Pierce states that after Pastor Winter's departure, Prince Maksoutov, Alaska's Acting Russian Governor, wrote to Finland, requesting a fourth Evangelical Lutheran Pastor to be sent to Sitka.15 Although Pierce does not give his source, Pastor K.J.G Sirelius, Director of Finland Missionary Society,16 mentions in his preserved letter17 (for letter see further below), that he had received such a request prior to 1871. This preserved letter is not a (the) response-letter to Augustana Synod's own president Tufve Nilson Hasselquist's note transmitted to K.J.G. Sirelius through pastor Peter Fjellstedt, Director of Sweden's Missionary Society. In that note Pastor Hasselquist had written the following, partly in Swedish (here in my English translation): "When the United States took over this land purchased from the Russians, an American military Chaplain held services in this Finnish Lutheran Church, which was described as being very beautiful, well cared for with an organ works etc. I wrote to this congregation in Swedish because it was assumed that these Finns were Swedes, were Swedish speaking. But, as of yet, no answer has come forth, which leads me to believe that maybe the congregation was not Swedish, or that my letter never reached them, all due to the long and arduous distance the mail has to cover. (signed) T.N.H".18

Accompanying this note was also one from Peter Fjelstedt, addressed to K.J.G. Sirelius in Helsinki, Finland. It bears the date November 4, 1870. Therein Fjelstedt told Sirelius that: "T.N. Hasselquist from Paxton, Illinois, United States (North America) has humbly requested that I approach the Finland Missionary Society asking them if they could do something for the Finns in Alaska in the north west corner of North America, which the Russians recently gave up to the United States? I'm enclosing the Professor's (Hasselquist's) promemoria humbly asking that this most important situation be taken under consideration by your board, and the answer be sent to Professor Hasselquist under the above address...(signed) P. Fjellstedt."19

Pastor Tufve Nilson Hasselquist was born in Sweden in 1816, on March 3. In 1852 he married Eva Helena Cervin and a few months later the couple set out for America. Between 1852-1863 he served at Galesburg, Illinois, and from 1863 to1875 in Paxton, Illinois. It's from there he wrote above note to Sirelius in Finland. From 1860 to 1870 he served as the President of Augustana Synod as well as President of Augustana College and from 1873 up to his death, also as President of Augustana's Theological Seminary. From 1868 to 1898 he served also as the Editor of the publication Augustana. After long and active years Pastor Hasselquist died at age 75 in 1891 at his home-base at Augustana College, Rock Island, Illinois.20

However, on March 14, 1871, Sirelius had written the following letter to an unstated receiver, probably a pastor, as he started his letter with the following greeting: "Precious Brother in the Lord. It has taken me a long time getting around fulfilling the promise I made last Fall, that is to give you news about the former Lutheran parish in Sitka: so, in the hope that you kindly excuse me, I will now share with you what the last preacher of the above parish, Pastor Winter wrote me. In the fall of 1858,21 all the members of the former Protestant Lutheran parish of the Colony of Sitka, departed together with the leaders of the former Russo American Company, for St. Petersburg, except for those few, who stayed in San Francisco. It is quite possible that one or two employees opted to stay behind for a longer or shorter period. But I doubt it. However it is possible that one or two Finns, such as Mustonen, who married an Aleut, might have stayed on, as they had built themselves homes on Kodiak."22

As Sirelius is here making a direct references to Hasselquist's above stated request, it seems to imply that this particular letter was addressed to someone other than Hasselquist, and from the manner of addressing the receiver it most certainly indicate that it was not addressed to Prince Maksoutov. Thus it might be assumed that the above request for a fourth pastor had been received from at least three different directions. However, the matter of who was to care for the Evangelical Lutherans left in Sitka from the Russian Era, was hardly settled by this. In Alaska Finns23 I established what happened to Sitka's now pastor-less Evangelical Lutherans. Suffice to say that in Sitka's shrinking population, most of the Lutherans there, seem to have been satisfied with at least some of the services provided by the American military garrison's Presbyterian minister. When the military departed these Russian Era Evangelical Lutherans, who, by now had bolstered their scant numbers by incoming transients and settlers faced a new crisis. Outwardly it seems to have been caused by the desire expressed by both new and old ruthlessly fierce parties, in their need to posess the most desirable lot, that is, the lot upon which the Russian American Company's Evangelical Lutheran Church had stood upon. This lot was situated right in the center of town facing St. Michael's Russian Orthodox Church. Only a narrow street managed to separated them. As this pastor-less Lutheran congregation had no experienced leader wielding sufficient clout on behalf of this congregation, these bands of ruffians ended up with terrific field days. Thus by June 9, 1888, Sitka's District Court judge had been convinced that the church building was in "such disrepair it posed a hazard to its townspeople" and ordered it torn down.24 This done, the Russian Orthodox St. Michael's church was the only one presiding over the city center.

Then two years later, Sitka, Alaska's Russian Era capital, lost this designation as such, as Juneau was declared American Alaska Territory's capital in 1890. This prompted Sitka's slide into yet further decline. This city's preferred site during the Russian Era with its easy reach directly from the open Pacific, had become its greatest disadvantage, as the sheltered "Inside Passage" was now the much preferred route up and down the coast connecting Alaska to the lower Union of States. It did not take long before Sitka had slid into an insignificant half forgotten out-of-the-way community and port. This state of affairs would continue for some seventy years when the emergencies of World War II would suddenly call the government's attention to its strategic Northern Pacific position.25 However, in the last part of the eighteen hundreds, back in Sitka those same ruthless ruffian parties continued to harass the Lutherans in Sitka. At this time they tried to take possession of the Lutherans' church-lot which at the transfer had been deeded to them for all perpetuity. And indeed these lawless ruffians would have managed to do so, had it not been for the decisive actions of a visiting pastor, Reverend William H. Myers, from Grace Lutheran Church, Reeding, Pennsylvania. What luck that he showed up in 1895, just in time to prevent this final loss.26

A year later, that is, in 1896, the Hancock, Michigan-based Finnish pastor, Reverend Samuel Ilmonen visited Sitka.27 Ilmonen mentions he had encountered some 500 individuals in Sitka, who all claimed Finnish ancestry. Alaska's Russian Orthodox Church records testify to the accuracy of his statement.28 As most of these individuals "born in subsequent generations" are presumed to have adhered to the Russian Orthodox faith. Pastor Ilmonen also reported that he had, during the same journey to Alaska, visited Juneau and Douglas, remaining at these sites for several weeks.29 By this time gold had already been discovered in the Douglas-Juneau area which had drawn a mighty number of gold prospectors to the site. Most of these men and women belonged to the later new wave of immigrants. Many of those immigrants were from the Scandinavian countries. This included Finland, then still under Russian rule.

The Transient Evangelical Lutherans in Early Douglas Alaska

At the time of my visit to Augustana College I discovered that Augustana College's Swenson Swedish Immigration Institute's archives held a wealth of private letters and published reports on the Augustana Mission church's toil in Douglas, Alaska. Most all of these are written in the Swedish language of Augustana Synod and are here presented in my translations. These records offer a good look into both Augustana Synod's and their Alaska mission's working-patterns, as well as at the unstable and often transient mining community it served in Douglas. This paper is to a great extent based upon the documentation found in these untapped sources.

Thus, hooking up with the above account: for the board of Augustana Synod the questions concerning the Evangelical Lutherans in the Alaska panhandle, was still unresolved. In June of 1900, just seven months after Hasselquist's death, and a mere four years after Ilmonen's recorded visit to Sitka, Augustana's Board decided to send Reverend S.P.A. Lindahl to Alaska to there investigate, and then assess what the needs would be there. On record is that Pastor Lindahl penetrated far into Alaska territory, visiting Douglas, Skagway, Dawson, the mining-fields at Bonanza Creek, and Nome, but not Sitka, on his journey of explorations. It was from Douglas that Lindahl reported to Augustana Synod's Pastor Hasselquist's successor, and thus his superior, Pastor Erik Norelius, that along the Gastineau Channel there resided a great number of Swedes of which most where single men. Of these a majority worked the mines. However there were also many with families, of which he reported "all yearned to hear God's word". He also reported that the Douglas based community counted some 1200 inhabitants, of which one-third were native Indians and one-third Scandinavians and Finns. The rest were other nationalities. Thus it indicates that large numbes of Scandinavians were working for the local mines. Additionally he stated the town had about 24 taverns and two church-buildings. One was a Quaker one, the other was Congregationalist. Furthermore Lindahl reported he held his first church services 19 June 1900. He recorded that about thirty individuals had shown up. He then went on to explain that at the mines the work-shift changed every other Sunday. Thus, on such Sundays no-one was able to attend church. He then stated: "as a matter of fact, here there are but two Holidays, Christmas and Fourth of July. Everyone works here twelve hours shifts and eats and sleeps the rest of the time"30

Backed by recommendations Lindahl had obtained from the recently deceased Augustana College graduate, the Swedish Mining Engineer, A. Forsberg, who in 1899 had died in a mining accident, Lindahl suggested to the Augustana Synod's Board that they send a permanent missionary to the Douglas area. Lindahl wrote that it was additionally quite easy to serve from Douglas the needs found in the nearby community of Juneau, situated on the opposite shore of Gastineau Channel, as well as Skagway further up north.31

The Augustana Synod Board agreed, and their choice fell on their own student of theology, S.P. Holmberg. He arrived in Douglas shortly before Christmastime of 1900, and spent nine months toiling in Douglas. Holmberg wrote his superiors he had rented a hall in which he held services every other Sunday evening as well as on every other Sunday afternoon. He also wrote of the squalid conditions he found in Douglas, and the community's desperate need for religious leadership. He then warned the Augustana Board that if they did not provide Douglas with a permanent missionary pastor the Swedish and American Methodist Churches would take it all.

While Holmberg was still stationed at Douglas, the community decided to incorporate into a city. Holmberg's stay in Douglas had from the start been planned to be shortlived.

Thus, in June of 1901, just shortly before his final departure in September, he made a journey up the channel all the way to Skagway.32 Then upon his return Holmberg departed Douglas for Augustana to there complete his theological studies. On the 20th of August the same year his appointed successor, Pastor J.N. Sundquist, had arrived to Douglas as Augustana Synod's first permanent pastor assigned to Douglas. However, this choice seems to have been unfortunate, as by the next summer some rumors of inappropriate behavior had reached the Board of Augustana Synod. Thus Augustana Synod's board called upon their Seattle-based Pastor, Martin Ludwig Larson, to make a journey up to Douglas, to there investigate these matters. They were found to be serious enough to have Pastor Sundquist suspended as of August 1902.33

About that time Holmberg also wrote the Synod a letter wherein he alluded to the scandal created by Reverend Sundquist. However, this letter does not clearly indicate the nature of Sundquist's offence. But it seems to have been in connection with the first-ever Evangelical Lutheran Confirmation held in Douglas. Holmberg lamented thus: "the victim is a youngster named Charlie Söderqvist, who next to Mrs. Forsberg had been the most straightforward and honest souls in my flock. While at Douglas I had relied so very heavily upon them."34

About the same time Pastor Larson reported to Norelius, also his superior, that Pastor Sundqvist had shown up on his doorstep to there lament his situation, as well as its harsh consequences, begging for a second chance, which he for obvious reasons had not been granted.35 Furthermore, Augustana Synod's preserved records seem to indicate that the Sundqvist matter kept dragging on as unresolved until 1904, because on March 2 of that year, Norelius placed a notice into the Augustana journal's issue published on 7 April, in which he summoned J.N. Sundquist to appear at the next Augustana Synod conference to be held that year at Lindsborg, Kansas on June 2. Sundqvist was to be there to answer the Synod's questions. In the notice Norelius stated that even if Sundquist did not appear in person, the Synod Board would take up this matter under consideration.36

Upon Larson's return from his Douglas investigation trip, he voiced his deep concerns over the dept of damage now done to the community's trust in Augustana Synod's pastors. Then made the suggestion that Seattle's Swedish lay pastor, Johan A. Levine, who, at the time was toiling in the Everett region, would be a most excellent choice for Douglas. Thus the Board appointed Johan A. Levine to their Douglas site where Levine and his family were to spend the years from 1902 to 1907.

Johan A. Levin was born in Kristinestad, Sweden in 1842. As a 20 years old youth he had arrived to the U.S. in 1864. By the time of his appointment to Douglas he was married and the couple had one child.37

Levine seems to have been blessed with much energy and was an obvious workhorse as he already by the end of 1902 had managed to collect the grand sum of $271.60 towards erecting an Augustana church-building at Douglas. Then in April of 1904 Levine submitted to the Synod's Board, his construction plans for the actual church-building. Describing the building Levine stated in his report that the building was to be 24 feet wide and 40 feet long with 14 feet high walls. The submitted design included a tower measuring 10 feet x 10 feet, which also held the entrance vestibule. In the back of the church he planned an add-on structure measuring 16 feet x 24 feet, with 10 feet high walls to be used both as a classroom and for social gatherings. The Board seems to have appreciated Levine's energy and thus approved it-all, as well as ordaining the 62 years old Levine a pastor into Augustana Synod.

The Evangelic Lutheran Church, Douglas, Alaska.38

In the above-mentioned letter Levine also mentioned that the promised church-lot had by then disappeared into thin air. He said this misfortune was all in consequence of the fire that had broken out at some earlier point. It had swept away several of the Treadwell Mine's own buildings valued at $17,000. On the brighter side, he wrote, he had on Easter Sunday, about 40 people attending his services. Additionally the Women's Society continued to regularly hold their meetings once a month, the Young Girls' Sewing Circle consisted of nine girls, spanning the ages between 11 and 16.39

The following year Levine described how he himself was heavily involved in the actual construction work of erecting the church-building. Work this most remarkable sixty-three year old pastor ended up doing mostly on his own through the labor of his own hands, and "it hadn't much helped that I had slipped on the scaffoldings, and fallen down and hit my chest". However, on the bright side, he reported, he had confirmed six youngsters.40

The same year Levine reported to the Augustana Synod Board, that there were 32 children enrolled in his Sunday school, which was served by five teachers. The Women's Society has donated $114.90 towards the church-building. Furthermore, the Girls' Sewing Circle had managed to collect $18.00 towards the same. The price of the designated church-lot, measuring 50 feet by 100 feet, came to $282.00. Levine wrote he had paid for it himself out of his own pocket as a donated it to the mission. He wrote furthermore: "On July 23 I started the construction by clearing the lot. August 29 the foundation was poured in cement, as nothing else would hold, the ground here is so wet." On August 31, the actual building of the church got started. By September 20, Levine wrote: "I had managed to erect all the supports with some of the 'Shiplap' nailed into place. Then during the night those horrid Taku winds arrived and swept away the entire upper floor and dumped the planks on the sidewalk. This was very depressing, as it caused lots of snide remarks such as: 'The churches fall, but the Taverns still stand'! However, I continued to work on the building, and by Christmas-time we had managed so far that we could hold the children's party in the lower level of the church. However, we have to be satisfied with temporary doors and windows as the Seattle firm has, yet to deliver those we had ordered."41

Levine reported that all the exterior walls of the church-building had triple layered walls, and he had lined each layer with heavy paper. All the floors were also double built with a layer of heavy tar-paper tacked down in-between the layers.

Additionally he had built two rooms into the back of the church. Each room was about 11 feet by 14 feet. He had moved into those. He reported that the church-room was both beautiful and comfortable, as well as warm. He summed up by stating that to date he had spent about $1,672.53 on the building.

Then he went on to report he had baptized ten children, three Swedish and seven Finnish ones, and performed three marriages, and two funerals. Of the funerals one was for a Norwegian, the other for a Finn.42

In January of the following year he wrote Norelius that the church-building was now ready for full occupancy, although much work was yet needed. The church-room was still missing its communion rail, pulpit, and pews. On the exterior, the building still lacked its back staircase, and the sidewalks and the lot fence were still missing, as well as other sundry things. Included with the letter was a photo of the church. An additional picture of the church was sent the following month. In the accompanying note he stated: "we had such beautiful clear weather last Sunday, so I rushed to take a picture of our church and Sunday-school children. However, I'm sorry that not all the children were there, nor all the teachers, and in my hurry I forgot to put on my official garb." The report and the picture were featured in the Augustana issue published on March 15 that year.43

In that year's report Levine stated he had baptized 13 children, of which two had Swedish parents, two has Swedish speaking Finnish parents, seven Finnish children, one Norwegian child, and one child of German and Swedish parentage. He had married two Finnish couples, and two Swedish speaking Finnish couples. He had buried a Swede and a Swede-Finn. In October of that year Levine wrote he had sent Norelius an interior picture of his church, remarking that the pews were temporary and that the frame above the altar was still missing its altarpiece-painting.44

It is to be noted that this is the only time a mention of a desired altarpiece painting is found in any of the reports I have studied. If indeed, Douglas' Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church acquired an altarpiece painting, it would be the second Evangelical Lutheran one in Alaska. The first being the famous Finnish artist Berndt Abraham Godenhjelm's The Transfiguration of Christ, which was shipped to Sitka, Russian Alaska in 1839, to there adorn Alaska's first Evangelical Lutheran Church, that is, the Russian-American Company's Evangelical Lutheran parish's church.45 It would be of significant historical cross-cultural importance to discover whether Augustana Synod's Douglas church had indeed acquired an altarpiece-painting, and who the artist was, and where this painting is now located.46

In January Pastor Levine described the most depressing consequences the community was continuing to suffer through, which was caused by the lack of available coal. He said "people are freezing in their homes, and it has forced the mines to close-down for an unknown length of time, making everybody miserable and anxious about the future. As this has never happened before, the situation has so dampened the spirit of the people that I have been unable to get my flock formalized into any committed parishes.47

However, that year by December 13, Levine had managed to collect enough funds to fully pay for his church-building. In his report he also mentioned that unfortunately his organist, Mrs. John Åström, had moved from the community, indicating his church now had an organ. Additionally he had baptized 11 children, of which one had Swedish parents, two had Swedish-speaking Finnish parents, three had Finnish parents, two had Norwegian ones, one had a German and a Finnish parent. One had a Swedish and an American parent, one child had a Finnish and a Swedish parent. He had also performed six marriages: one Swedish couple, three Finnish couples, one Danish-Norwegian couple, one German-American couple. He had buried four: one Swede-Finn, one Finn, one German, and one Japanese. Additionally he reported that Finnish Pastor Carl Eric Lindström had visited Douglas the previous spring, and that the Douglas Finns had approached Pastor Lindström with a request for him to stay and form a parish with them. However he had declined their offer.48 What actually had prompted Pastor Lindström to visit Douglas is unknown. Available records only establishes his presence at Douglas in the spring of 1905.

As the time approached for Levine's departure he made the recommendations to his superiors at Augustana, that they might be wise to chose a pastor well versed in both Swedish, Finnish and English, as the community had at least 36 Finnish families as well as numerous single men and women. Thus it mimicked the language-skills required by all pastors some sixty years earlier, serving at Sitka's Russian Era, Russian American Company's Evangelical Lutheran Pastorate. Pastor Levine departed Douglas in 1907. Pastor Levine's legacy at Douglas, is as Alaska's first pastor to build an Evangelical Lutheran Church on American soil. In 1929 the energy-filled pastor Levine died at the ripe age of 87.49

At Pastor Levine's departure Augustana Synod appointed Pastor C.E. Frisk to take over for a few months as interim pastor, that is, until the next appointment had been made.50

Johan Hjalmar Warmanen.51

In the fall of 1907 Johan Hjalmar [Wahlberg] Warmanen, was engaged for the Augustana Synod mission post at Douglas. This was a pastor who was well versed in both Swedish and Finnish and he also did manage in English. Warmanen's background is of interest. He was born in Taivassalo, Finland on January 14, 1874, to the shoemaker Fabian Wahlberg and the maid Maria Henrika Johansdotter. Later in reference to this sea-faring region Johan Hjalmar pointed to his own past experiences as a merchant seaman. At age 25, he married Hanna Mathilda Lindholm, born in Loviisa, also a major coastal seafaring town.52 Then the young couple set out for the U.S. At what time Johan Hjalmar Wahlberg decided to change his Swedish language family name to the Finnish language Warmanen is unknown, but might have been prompted by his affiliation with the National Church. He had served at the Seaman's Mission Church in New York, and he was also well versed in both Swedish and Finnish.53 As a pastor's candidate, Hanna, Wyoming's pastor, J.W. Eloheimo, ordained him pastor October 24, 1900 at Hanna. He was called to South Dakota to serve the parishes of Lake Norden-Poinsett, and served them from 1900 to 1902. In 1903 he moved to Calumet, Michigan, where he served as the preacher at the National Church. Warmanen also served as editor of the church's publications Joulurauha and Kansan lehti. At the church-wide meeting held in 1906 he faced accusations, admitting he had thoughtlessly used words which had hurt the church's reputation, to which he asked their forgiveness. The board made notations thereof, and put the issues at rest. However, at the church-wide conference celebrating its 8 years of existence, held at Wakefield, Michigan the same year, Warmanen, who was present, was accused of not only disturbing the peace at the conference, but in general also by his conduct, including his teaching: projecting the wrong image of Christ, and a deviant interpretation of the meaning behind the holy sacrament. When he refused to alter his interpretations, the church-board officially expelled him from the church for the duration of a year. At the end of that year he did not apply for re-entry to the National Church, but had joined the Augustana Synod.54

Warmanen then approached Augustana Synod and while in Chicago he was ordained into their fold on June 14, 1908. Augustana Synod then appointed him to take up their mission post at Douglas, Alaska. Here he served for the next five year period, that is, 1908-1913.55 Presumably some of the couple's seven children were born there.56

As his colleges had, so too did Warmanen report to his Synod. For the year 1911-1912 he wrote that another horrifying storm had lasted for some three weeks. He stated likewise that the fierce penetrating winds made it impossible to keep any dwellings warm. Adding to the misery was the community's lack of coal, and splitting wood was quite impossible in such a storm. He then wrote: "even I, a former seaman, got plenty nervous under such horrid conditions: as while the storm raged every house swayed and creaked so on their foundations it was impossible to stay in bed at night, when one at any time could expect something coming flying in through the windows. Thus one instantly had to be prepared with boards, hammer and nails, to board them up. It was lucky that the ground was well covered with deep snow, otherwise the community would suffer from lack of water. At such times there was always such a great fear of fires breaking out. As many had and did. But luckily all were quickly contained. Out of self-interest and necessity, every Douglas resident had, due to these stormes, joined the volunteer Fire Brigade."

Additionally Warmanen reported he had put great effort in forming a Swedish and a Finnish congregation. The Swedish one, named "The Evangelical Lutheran Augustana Parish of Douglas", had been short-lived, as in the transient Douglas far too few people had signed up. However, "The Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Bethlehem Parish" did get formalized. Warmanen also stated he had regularly held services in Swedish and Finnish, but did not feel quite as competent in English, feeling he was not fluent enough. He also mentioned the debt on the Parish parsonage was now about $500.00, indicating that a separate parsonage had been constructed. In his report to the Synod for the year 1913 he mentioned he had repaired the church-roof, and that the church was being painted. The church-yard, which upon his arrival had looked more like a swamp, he had by now fully drained, and the ground had been filled in, and was leveled. He had then planted it with grass. Additionally he wrote: "I have planted twelve poplar trees on the south side of the church. All are growing fast, and so they will be full-grown and lush." He had also fenced in the entire church-property.57 After his five-year term, Warmanen left in 1913 for Seattle, Washington, where he served as Seattle's Swedish-Finnish parish pastor.58 After many fruitful years Warmanen died in 1934, at age 50, presumably in Hettinger, New England, the site of his last appointment.59 Thereafter it seams Augustana Synod's Douglas mission parish was left without the leadership of a pastor for some time to come, as no replacement seem to have been found for the next two years. However, in November 1815, Seattle's previously mentioned pastor, Martin Ludwig Larson took up Augustana Synod's toil at Douglas' Augustana Mission parish.

Martin Ludwig Larson was born in 1864 at Mossebo in Sweden. At age 14 he had reached the U.S. Then from 1890 to 1892 he had been enrolled at Augustana College. From 1892 to 1915 he then served as pastor at Seattle, Washington. Thereafter up to 1918 he was to be engaged at Augustana Synod's mission parish at Douglas.60

As his predecessors, Larson also lamented the terrifying Taku wind-storms rushing through the narrow Gastneau Channel, describing thus how hard they were on even the steadiest of nerves, reporting to his superiors: "often they last some three weeks, during which the church and parsonage sway both night and day as if in a earthquake.61 Additionally he reported that his flock had formed into a parish going by the name of "The (Augustana) Immanuel Parish", never mentioning the "Finnish Bethlehem Parish", which Pastor Warmanen had formalized in 1912. Did the Bethlehem parish disintegrate during the two years this church was without the leadership of a pastor?

Furthermore Larson stated that he held regular Sunday-afternoon services in Juneau's Presbyterian church-building. For a full year's use he had only been charged the sum of $5.00 in rent. There seven to twenty people had attended regularly. January 1, 1916, Larson's main parish in Douglas counted some 72 members with 45 children. He had baptized 15, received into the church nine, seen four depart, married nine couples, and buried 11 dead. Unfortunately he omits to identify his flock by nationality. He also planned to make the journey up north, which the Synod's Board had recommended him to do. Thus having consulted Skipper Nord, he states it was set to take place sometime between May and June of that year. He then reported he had on June 14 set out on this journey to assess on behalf of Augustana Synod the conditions and needs at Skagway, Cordova, Valdez, Fort Liscum, Elamar, Latouche, and Seward. In Seward he reported he had formalized an Evangelical Lutheran Women's Society.62

Back in Douglas he included in his 1917 report that his Douglas parish had had some 78 children registered that year, but by the time of his report many had already moved away. Additionally, attendance at the services hadn't been as good as previously. He also reported that by "next summer a new church-roof would be needed, as it leaked both here and there". At the time of writing the report the parish counted some 65 members and 37 children. He had baptized children of four members, and 18 children of non-members, and held burial services for seven non-members.63

It is during Larson's tenure in Douglas that a major mine disaster occurred in 1917, when the waters of the Gastineau Channel broke through the walls, and filled the Treadwell Mine with its water. It had been the world's largest low-grade mine. Today it's so called Glory Hole serves as a mighty tourist attraction. However, then it was a mighty disaster affecting Douglas' population and the Augustana Evangelical Lutheran parish membership.

He mentioned that after this disaster many members had moved away from Douglas. He himself departed Douglas on May 13, 1818 to take up his next position as pastor at Almelund, Minnesota, where he was to lead his assigned parish up to the year 1930. Thereafter he was doing the same at Fort Lauderdale in Florida. There Larsson died at age 71 in 1935.64

In Larson's last report made from his parish at Douglas, he stated that at the time of his departure Douglas had only one functioning Protestant church left, the Episcopalian. He expressed the wish that his people would return to Douglas in sufficient numbers for Augustana Synod to take up its mission-work there again.65 This statement clearly indicates that the Treadwell Mine disaster occurring in the spring of 1917, had created such a mass-exodus that Augustana Synod's parish had lost the majority of its membership, and thus had collapsed.66

Conclusion

In sharp contrast to the Russian Era's Russian American Company's Evangelical Lutheran parish's 65 years of activities out of Russian Alaska, the Augustana Synod's Evangelical Lutheran Mission Church serving Douglas, Alaska Territory, had lasted for eighteen short years, a mere third of the time Sitka's Russian Era Evangelical Lutheran Church had served its designated Pastorate spanning the entire Northern Pacific Rim.

Of interest to note is that Douglas' early Swedish Augustana Synod mission served, not only its own local Swedes, but also Finnish and Swedish speaking Finns, Danes, Norwegians, German speakers, and other local Evangelical Lutherans. A fact not often documented, with perhaps the exception of the young Finnish speaking immigrant Joseph Riippa, whose family had settled in Oregon's Columbia River region near Astoria, and who was sent to Illinois to there attend Augustana College. As during those times back in his homeland Finland, it was true for Augustana College, where he now first had to learn Swedish, so he could get the desired education, so he could fulfill his dreams of serving his own immigrant people as a Finnish-speaking Evangelical Lutheran pastor in the United States.67

Of great interest and value to the historian and genealogical researcher alike would be the discovery of the actual identities, defined by nationality, place of birth, age, profession, name, gender, and family unite, of all those who both attended and somehow affiliated themselves with the Augustana Synod's Mission Church at Douglas. Time and research might still bring forth this vital information. Towards this end Carol Ruotsala Staats have done most admirable work in her published Juneau Douglas Finns. So has Finnish journalist-author K-G Olin in his three-volume study of the Finns in Russian Alaska, and the turn-of-the-century Gold Rush years. In a conversation K-G Olin once suggested that Finnish Pastor Warmanen might on occasion have served the Evangelical Lutherans in nearby Sitka. However, nowhere in any of Augustana Synod's archival material I myself have studied, did I ever find the name "Sitka" mentioned, or its old Russian-Era Evangelical Lutheran Parish, or the flock of the pastor-less Evangelical Lutherans still residing in Sitka. When Augustana Synod's Douglas-based pastors mentioned their travel destinations in their published or preserved personal reports and letters, they always stated they were heading north. However, Sitka's early newspapers are filled with mentions of the town's Evangelical Lutherans' "endless" struggles in keeping their parish membership together. Published minutes taken during their meetings span the years from 1886 to 1926,68 thus covering the years the above six Augustana Synod pastors toiled in nearby Douglas. One might wonder: "Truly, was there never any communication between these two communities and two Lutheran groups?" However, solid evidence to that effect has yet to surface.Thus, it is most ironic to contemplate the fact behind the 1918 collapse of Augustana Synod's parish at Douglas, which compelled its pastor to leave Alaska, if one considers the fact that just a short distance away the Lutherans in Sitka is said to have craved for some fifty-three endless years, the leadership of an Evangelical Lutheran pastor. Thus it is nearly impossible to understand why none of the above six pastors had any knowledge of this parish and its long-standing plight. Might this suggest some other reason for the pastor-less condition at the Sitka parish? In time someone might unearth some compelling evidence, pointing to the real reason behind it all, explaining why Sitka's parish stayed pastor-less for nearly seventy five years, that is, up to the time mighty storm-clouds gathered, announcing the coming of World War II.

As Augustana Synod's Douglas church in Alaska was a mission church, it thus served the Douglas community for the most part as such, that is, outside the boundaries of any formalized parishes. And, as Augustana College's Swenson Swedish Immigration Research Center's collection of Augustana Synod's parish records, does not have any such records for their 1900-1918 mission church at Douglas, it is most likely its several pastors never kept any formal records on those who attended its church-, community-, or parish-related activities. However, Alaska State Library has census records taken for the year 1916.69 They include Douglas. Although it is quite impossible to create parish attendance or membership records out of them, they do give us some indications of the community through some typically Scandinavian type names, that is, if not totally anglified by the owner, or by the census taker. Additionally these records give information on occupations, and occasionally also age, but no indications to the person's old citizen-ship and past homeland. These 1916 census records indicate that Douglas' population consisted of some 999 individuals, not counting minors. The following names I have picked out from these records as I believe they are of Scandinavian origin. As I have tried to be very conservative, some names might have been left out.

Name

Occupation

Sex

Age

Home address

Aalto, A.

dairyman

m

50

South 5th street.

Aalto, Mrs A.

housewife

f

legal

same

Adamson, E.C.

photographer

m

42

Gundler Block

Adamson, J.M.

miner

m

legal

4th Street and F. Street

Adamson, Mrs. J.M.

housewife

 

legal

same

Adamson, Louise.

waitress

f

legal

North Front Street

Anderson, A.F.

hoistman

m

51

Treadwell

Anderson, Mrs. A.F.

housewife

f

legal

same

Anderson, A.L.

engineer

m

legal

3rd and C. Street

Anderson, Mrs. A.L.

housewife

f

legal

same

Anderson, August.

miner

m

46

Bunkhouse #1, Treadwell

Anderson, C.F.

miner

m

legal

Front Street

Anderson, C.J.

miner

m

55

Bunkhouse #1, Treadwell

Anderson, C.O.

blacksmith

m

44

St. Anne Avenue

Anderson, Mrs. C.O.

housewife

f

legal

same

Anderson, E.

miner

m

21

same

Anderson, C.W.

teamster

m

21

Laitila Boardinghouse

Anderson, F.O.

miner

m

34

74 St. Anne Avenue

Anderson, Hugo

motorman

m

legal

Treadwell

Anderson, Mrs H.

-

f

-

-

Anderson, Josephine

waitress

f

22

Corbert Boarding House

Anderson, Leander

miner

m

67

74 St Anne Street

Anderson, Mrs. Leander

housewife

f

legal

same

Anderson, Nels

miner

m

48

The Pines

Anderson, Mrs. Nels

housewife

f

legal

same

Anderson, Ole

-

m

-

-

Autio, E.

miner

m

37

62 St. Anne Street

Autio, Mrs. E.

housewife

f

25

same

Barqvist, Walter

millman

m

21

Bunkhouse #2, Treadwell

Barqvist, William

machinist

m

23

same

Beck, A.

miner

m

36

4th and A. Street

Beck, Mrs A.

housewife

f

legal

same

Beckman, G.

 

f

legal

North Front Street

Berg, Andy

hoistman

m

48

Bunkhouse #2, Treadwell

Bergqvist, Charles

miner

m

51

5 Beach Street

Bergqvist, E.

miner

m

53

same

Björklund, K.E.

-

-

-

-

Bolhin, Carl

-

m

-

-

Bohlin, Mrs. C.

-

f

-

-

Borg, Werner

miller

m

legal

Halm House

Carlson, Charles

miner

m

44

St. Anne Ave.

Carlström, C.E.

-

-

-

-

Christiansen, W.O.

millman

m

30

Duncan House

Christofferson, J.

-

-

-

-

Dahl, J.

janitor

m

33

M.E. Church.

Danielson, A

miner

m

26

 

Eastberg A.

miner

m

27

138 St. Anne

Eastberg, Mrs. A.

housewife

f

legal

same

Eastberg H.

hoistman

m

26

South 5th Str.

Eastberg, Mrs H.

housewife

f

23

same

Elfström, J.E.

jeweler

m

42

1st and B. Str.

Erickson, C.H.

millman

m

31

D. Street

Erickson, Mrs. C.H.

housewife

f

legal

same

Erickson, Gus

millman

m

25

5th Str. Tyee Add.

Erickson, Mrs. Gus

seamstress

f

43

same

Erickson, Ted.

mariner

m

72

South Beach

Forsberg, A.

engineer

m

legal

Henson Flats

Gustafson, E.

bookkeeper

m

29

The Pines

Gustafson, Mrs. E.

housewife

f

legal

same

Haikela, M.

miner

m

33

St. Anne Ave

Haikela, Mrs. M.

housewife

f

legal

same

Hill, O.

druggist

m

legal

Brie Drug Store

Honkanen, O.

miner

m

legal

Treadwell

Jackle, William

carpenter

m

57

Bunkhouse #1, Treadwell

Jacobson, Jacob

miner

m

44

2nd & H. Street

Jacobson, Mrs Jacob

housewife

f

legal

same

Johnson, A.J.

laundry man

m

39

Grundler Appartments

Johnson, J.A.

 

m

legal

Beach

Johnson, J.A.

-

-

-

-

Johnson, Charles

-

m

-

-

Johnson, C.A.

miner

m

legal

Bunkhouse # 4, Treadwell

Johnson, C.E.

miner

m

36

2nd Street

Johnson, C.W.

pattern maker

m

55

14 Treadwell

Johnson, Mrs. C.W.

housewife

f

legal

same

Johnson, Carl

millman

m

legal

2nd and D. Street

Johnson, Mrs. Carl

housewife

f

legal

same

Johnson, Charles

butcher

m

27

Day Building

Johnson, Charles B.

millman

m

23

Bunkhouse #3, Treadwell

Johnson, G.L.

machinist

m

35

Murray Flats

Johnson, Mrs. G.L.

housewife

f

legal

same

Johnson, Guy

surveyor

m

26

Treadwell

Johnson, J.D.

surveyor

m

legal

Duncan House

Johnson, N.P.

machinist

m

57

Mexican Flats

Johnson, Mrs. N.P.

housewife

f

legal

same

Johnson, Pete

miner

m

47

St. Anne Street

Johnson, Mrs. Pete

housewife

f

legal

 

Johnson, R.

butcher

m

legal

Bunkhouse #3, Treadwell

Johnson, W.J.

carpenter

m

28

Roene Building

Kearney, Jack.

mill man

rn

25

Bunkhouse #1, Treadwell.

Kopikka, T.

miner

m

37

Niemi Boarding House

Kopikka, Mrs. T.

housewife

f

32

same

Koski, Anton.

miner

m

32

4th opposite school

Koski, Mrs. Anton.

housewife

f

legal

same

Kronqvist, Fred

merchant

m

53

St. Anne Avenue.

Kronqvist, Anna

-

f

legal

-

Kronqvist, Axel

-

m

-

-

Lagergren, Al.

carpenter

m

35

Treadwell

Lagergren, Mrs. Al.

housewife

f

legal

same

Laittala, J.

miner

m

47

Laitala Boarding House

Laittala, Mrs. J.

housewife

f

40

same

Landsberg, Dave

miner

m

55

Treadwell

Landsberg, Mrs. Dave.

housewife

f

legal

same

Landsberg, R.

miner

m

legal

St. Anne Ave.

Landsberg, Mrs. R.

housewife

f

legal

same

Larsen, Chris

contractor

m

legal

Grundler Appartments

Larsen, Ed.

foundry

m

32

Treadwell

Larsen, Jessie

 

m

legal

North Front Str.

Larsen, P.

carpenter

m

26

Bunkhouse # 1, Treadwell

Larson, Martin Ludwig

minister

m

51

3rd and E. Street

Larson, Mrs. Martin Ludwig

housewife

f

51

same

Liljestrand, A.

miner

m

59

3rd and H. Street

Liljestrand, Mrs. A.

housewife

f

legal

same

Liljestrand, Maude

merchant

f

legal

same

Loomis, E.G.

sawyer

m

43

Reidi Building

Loomis, Mrs. E.G.

housewife

f

legal

same

Lundell, G.

miner

m

38

The Pines

Lundell, Mrs. G.

housewife

f

legal

same

Lundgren, Gus

m

-

-

 

Lundqvist, Joseph

miner

m

legal

Douglas

Magnuson, Nels

miner

m

legal

Beach Street

Maki, Mrs M. S.

bunk house keeper

 

41

New Saw Mill

Marklund, John

carpenter

m

legal

South 5th Street

Marklund, Mrs. John

housewife

f

legal

 

Mickelson, N.C.

miner

m

49

5th & D. Street

Mickelson Mrs. N.C.

housewife

f

legal

same

Nelson, A.T.

teamster

m

41

3rd & A. Street

Nelson, Mrs. A.T.

housewife

f

legal

same

Nelson, Gustav

miner

m

42

4th & D. Street

Neslon, Mrs. Gustav

housewife

f

49

same

Nelson, J.P.

clerk

m

48

2nd & D.Street

Nelson, Mrs. J.P.

Housewife

f

45

same

Niemi, A.

miner

m

-

Niemi Boarding House

Niemi, Mrs. A.

housewife

f

 

same

Nordström, J.A.

miner

m

47

Kronqvist Building

Olsen, John

liquor dealer

m

43

Front Street

Olsen, Mrs. John

housewife

f

legal

same

Olsen, Martin

coal dealer

m

legal

2nd & G. Street

Olsen, Mrs. Martin

housewife

f

legal

same

Olsen, Miss Martha

Teacher

f

legal

same

Olsen, Oliver

clerk

m

23

3rd & H. Street

Olsen, Mrs Oliver

housewife

f

legal

same

Olson, August.

millman

m

53

5th & D. Street

Olson, Mrs. August.

housewife

f

50

same

Olson, Edgar

millman

m

23

Henson Appartments

Olson, John

engineer

m

44

5th & G. Street

Olson, Mrs. John

housewife

f

legal

same

Osterberg, A.

engineer

m

27

Opp.Nat.

Osterberg, Mrs. A.

housewife

f

21

same

Osterberg, C.P.

engineer

m

58

St. Anne Ave.

Osterberg, C.P. Junior

milling

m

25

Duncan House

Ohman, Oscar.

Miner

m

legal

Bunk House #3, Treadwell

Petersen, Charles

miner

m

legal

Mäki Boarding House

Petersen, Rinaldo.

millman

m

25

3rd & G. Street.

Petersen, Mrs. Rinaldo.

housewife

f

legal

same

Peterson, Paul.

machinist

m

32

Livie Appartments

Rosenberg, William

warehouseman

 

legal

Duncan House

Rundström, Lou.

miner

m

25

Bunk House Treadwell

Sipola, Mrs. A.

 

f

   

Abbreviations

FNA: National Archives, Helsinki, Finland.

PLA: Philadelphia Lutheran Archives. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

SLCA: Sitka Lutheran Church Archives. Sitka Lutheran Church, Sitka, Alaska.

SSIRC: Augustana College. Swenson Swedish Immigration Research Center. Rock Island, Illinois.

Notes

Copies of all mentioned documents are available for study in Enckell Archives at Swedish-Finn Historical Society, Seattle, Washington.

1 Mäkinen 1959. Alaskan kuusi suomalaispappia = Alaska's Six Finnish Pastors.

2 Suomen sanomalehdistön matrikkeli, p. 107-108.

3 Enckell 2001.

4 Enckell 1996, p. 2.

5 Enckell 1996, p. 48.

6 FNA: Uno Cygnaeus Collection, Incoming letters. Two letters from Georg Gustaf Winter to Uno Cygnaeus. Microfiche KAY 10096; Enckell 1996, p. 4; FNA: Uno Cygnaeus Collection, Incoming letters. KAY 10099, p. 18 and 20. Gustaf Fredric Zandt, St. Petersburg's St. Katarina parish pastor, member of St. Petersburg's Evangelical Lutheran Church's Upper Synod, delegated to oversee the Russian American Company colony's Evangelical Lutheran's Sitka based pastor and church: his instructional letter to pastor Uno Cygnaeus, dated St. Petersburg, August 9, 1839, # 769, includes the shipping list of parish support materials, which among many things, also mentions several Estonian and Latvian language bibles and New Testaments. For letter and shippinglist in English translation, see Enckell 1996, p. 3-7.

7 Enckell 1996, p. 48.

8 Jensen 1975 presents all fazes of this matter; Pierce 1990, p. 329-332.

9 FNA: Uno Cygnaeus Collection, Incoming letters. Two letters from Georg Gustaf Winter to Uno Cygnaeus. Microfiche KAY 10096; Jensen 1975 discusses this issue throughout his publication. Each year the city of Sitka commemorates that day on the weekend closest to October 18, the day the actual transfer took place, with a costumed re-enactment of the transfer ceremony, the parade, and the all citizen grand ball, originally given by Prince Maksoutov, last Acting Governor of Russian America.

10 FNA: Uno Cygnaeus Collection, Incoming letters. Two letters from Georg Gustaf Winter to Uno Cygnaeus. Microfiche KAY 10096.

11 Pierce 1990, p. 541.

12 Pierce 1990, p. 541.

13 Åbo Akademi University Library, Manuscript Department, Turku: Vättilä Collection. Carl Constantin Swartz' letters home dated 1861; Elfsberg, Alexander, his departure date from Ajan, Pikoff 1938, p. 54; Removal of church silver, see SLCA: C. H. Schaap: A Historical Sketch of Sitka's Evangelical Lutheran Church. Manuscript, April 7, 1890; Enckell 1996, p. 26; Parish's move to Nikolajefsk on the Amur, see Lenker 1894, p. 649-650; Enckell 2004b, Chapter 16; Enckell 2004a.

14 Pierce 1990, under Georg Gustaf Winter, p. 541; Ahllund 1873. For Ahllund and his article in my English translation, see Enckell 2004b, Chapter 14.

15 Pierce 1990, p. 327-330 and 541, and under Dimitrii. My personal search for Prince Maksoutov's alledged letter, or any evidence of thereof, has so far been fruitless. If indeed such a request letter was sent out I would suspect it was addressed to Pastor Zandt, supervisor of the Company's parish, church, and pastors. However, as Russian Alaska was already up for sale, I doubt the St. Petersburg Synod was interested in supporting it any further, as the Company's operating charter had run out and a new one was not granted, and thus the Company in practice had by 1865 ceased to exist. By that time large numbers of the Company's Lutheran parish membership had started to move to the new parish, established a few months after Pastor Winter's departure at Nicolajefsk on the Amur, the new capital of Siberia's maritime region, now under former Russian Alaska's Governor, the Finn Johan Hampus Furuhjelm's supreme military rule. See also note 13. From 1870 onward they moved from Nicolajefsk to Vladivostok.

16 For Sirelius, see Lenker 1894, p. 418.

17 Enckell 1996, p. 20-21; PLA: Sirelius' letter in German to an unidentified receiver, dated Helsinki, March 14, 1871.

18 FNA: Archives of Finnish Missionary Society. Incoming letters from abroad to society's director 1859-1884, Eab 1, folder 1870. Undated letter signed TNH (Tufve Nelson Hasselqvist) attached to Fjellstedt's letter mentioned in end note 17. For Hasselqvist and Augustana Synod, see Lenker 1894, p. 381-382; Enckell 1996, p. 20-21; Lenker 1894, p. 823.

19 Enckell 1996, p. 21; FNA: Collection of Finnish Missionary Society. Incoming letters from abroad to society's director 1859-1884, Eab 1. Letter addressed to the Board of the Society dated November 4, 1870, signed P(eter) Fjellstedt. On the letter noted: received November 23, response February 2, 1871, which was a month and 12 days prior to Sirelius' response letter to another such inquiry, located in Philadelphia's Lutheran Archives (the rough drafts for these two letters not found among the Society's preserved ones). For Fjellstedt and Sweden's Missionary Society, see Lenker 1894, p. 789-790, with portrait of Fjellstedt on page 381.

20 Bergendorff 1980, under Tufve Nelson Hasselquist.

21 Could be an error meaning 1868 as Pastor Winter left Sitka in April 1865.

22 PLA: Sirelius' letter in German to an unidentified receiver, dated Helsinki, March 14, 1871; Enckell 1996, p. 21-22, and Chapter 4.

23 Enckell 1996, p. 26-27; SLCA: Copy of original court order; SLCA: C. H. Schaap: A Historical Sketch of Sitka's Evangelical Lutheran Church. Manuscript, April 7, 1890; SLCA: Ernst H. Nygaard: 1840-1940: A Short History of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, Sitka, Alaska. 1941.

24 Enckell 1996, p. 27; SLCA: Deed of church property ownership.

25 Construction date of second church building, see SLCA: Ernst H. Nygaard: 1840-1940: A Short History of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, Sitka, Alaska. 1941.

26 Myers 1895, p. 93-94; Enckell 1996, p. 21, 29 and 31.

27 Ilmonen 1919, p. 66.

28 Enckell 2004b, Appendix 1, Section 2; Up to 1865, see Library of Congress, Manuscript Division. Washington D.C., USA: Elisabeth Doroch & John Doroch: Index to Baptisms, Marriages and Deaths in the Archives of the Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church in Alaska 1816-1866. 1964.

29 Ilmonen 1919, p. 66.

30 SSIRC: Letter from S.P.A. Lindahl to Norelius, dated Douglas City, Alaska, June 20, 1900.

31 Norelius 1916, p 131.

32 SSIRC: Letter from S.P. Holmberg to C.W. Foss, dated Douglas, March 6, 1901, and letter from S.P. Holmberg to Norelius dated 6 March 6, 1901, and July 1, 1901.

33 SSIRC: Letter from Martin Ludwig Larson to Norelius, dated Seattle, Washington, November 21, 1902.

34 SSIRC: Letter from S.P. Holmberg to Norelius, dated July 25, 1902.

35 SSIRC: Letter from Martin Ludwig Larson to Norelius, dated Seattle, Washington, November 21, 1902.

36 Augustana, April 7, 1904.

37 Bergendorff 1980, under Johan A. Levine. Though, there is no "Kristinestad" in Sweden.

38 Augustana, March 15, 1906, p. 171.

39 SSIRC: Letter from Johan A. Levine to Norelius, dated Douglas City, Alaska, February 22, 1904. and April 22, 1904.

40 SSIRC: Letter from Johan A. Levine to Norelius, dated Douglas, Alaska, March 9, 1905.

41 SSIRC: Letter from Johan A. Levine to Norelius, dated Douglas, Alaska, September 20, 1905.

42 SSIRC: Letter from Johan A. Levine to Norelius, dated Douglas, Alaska, March 9, 1905, and letter from Johan A. Levine to Norelius, dated Douglas, Alaska, September 20, 1905.

43 Augustana, March 15, 1906, p. 171.

44 Augustana, March 30, 1905, p. 211, and March 15, 1906, p. 171; SSIRC: Letter from Johan A. Levine to Norelius, dated January 31, 1906, February 7, 1906, and October 17, 1906.

45 The history is described in Enckell 1996.

46 Enckell 1996, p. 9-11; Enckell 2004b, Appendix VII; Hanka 2004, p. 22-28.

47 SSIRC: Letter from Johan A. Levine to Norelius, dated January 31, 1907; Augustana, March 14, 1907, p. 164-165, and December 13, 1907, p. 800.

48 Augustana, December 13, 1907, p. 800.

49 Bergendorff 1980, under Johan A. Levine.

50 Found mentioned in Johan A. Levine's correspondence, however not listed in Bergendorff 1980.

51 Aho and Nopola 1949, p. 68.

52 Bergendorff 1980, p. 82; Aho and Nopola 1949, p.67-68.

53 Not mentioned in Lindström 1905 or Bergendorff 1980.

54 Aho and Nopola 1949, p. 36-37, 67-68, 84, 90, 325, and 341.

55 Bergendorff 1980, p. 82; SSIRC: Letters from J.H. Warmanen to Norelius, dated Calumet, Michigan, October 23, 1907, and November 29, 1907.

56 Bergendorff 1980, p. 82.

57 Augustana, February 25, 1909, under "Missionen", March 16, 1911, p. 203, June 25, 1912, p. 583, and August 21, 1913, under "Missionen".

58 Bergendorff 1980, p. 82.

59 Bergendorff 1980, p. 82.

60 Bergendorff 1980, p. 50.

61 Augustana, February 24, 1916, p. 146-147, March 16, 1916, and August 31, 1916, p. 683.

62 Augustana, February 24, 1916, p. 146-147, March 16, 1916, and August 31, 1916, p. 683.

63 Augustana, March 22, 1917, and August 29, 1918, p 559.

64 Bergendorff 1980, p. 50.

65 Augustana, 1918, p. 559.

66 Staat 1995.

67 Westersund 1974.

68 Enckell 1996, p. 22.

69 I would like to thank my friend, David A. Hales, for his generosity, in providing me with a copy of the 1916 Douglas, Alaska, census records, and the constructive advise he gave me after having read an earlier manuscript-version of this article.

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Published: May 26, 2004.

© Maria Jarlsdotter Enckell.

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