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The Delaware Finns

E. A. Louhi

Chapter I.  The Finnish emigration to Sweden, from where their path led to the American shores.
Chapter II.  Motives and inducements that led Sweden to establish a colony on the Delaware River.
Chapter III.  A colony established on the Delaware River.
Chapter IV.  The second expedition. The Dutch withdraw from the company. Dutch colonists coming to the Delaware.
Chapter V.  The third expedition. Finnish colonists brought to the Delaware River.
Chapter VI.  The fourth and the fifth expeditions. More Finnish colonists brought to America.
Chapter VII.  The sixth, seventh and eighth expeditions. The Finns beseeching the queen to be permitted to go to America.
Chapter VIII.  The ninth and tenth expeditions. The Finns flocking to get passage for America.
Chapter IX.  The Delaware settlements under the Swedish administration.
Chapter X.  The Delaware colony conquered by the Dutch.
Chapter XI.  New expeditions of Finns arriving at the Delaware River.
Chapter XII.  The first period of the Finnish settlements under the Dutch rule.
Chapter XIII.  England replacing Holland as the ruler of the South River.
Chapter XIV.  The first period of the Finnish settlement under the English rule.
Chapter XV.  The second period of the Finnish settlements under the Dutch rule.
Chapter XVI.  The second period of the Finnish settlements under the English rule.
Chapter XVII.  The third period of the Finnish settlements under the English rule.
Chapter XVIII.  The last stages of the Finnish settlements on the Delaware.

Chapter XIV. The First Period of the Finnish Settlements Under the English Rule.

When Fort New Amstel was taken by Sir Robert Carr, a considerable stock of merchandise was found in the fort. This booty was claimed by Carr as his prize. He also disposed houses, farms and stocks, confiscated from the Dutch officials, to his own benefit, therefore he was recalled to New York by the three other commissioners on October 24, and Colonel Nicholls was commissioned to go to Delaware in order to settle the affairs there.

Captain John Carr was appointed by Colonel Nicholls as commander of the garrison in Delaware and the Finnish Colony was left practically to take care of itself under its own magistrates and having its own militia. Many of the Dutch officers and colonists left in course of years back to their home country, but all the Finns stayed in the colony.

During the first years of the English rule the export trade suffered considerably, not only in the former New Netherland but in the English colonies, as the peltry and tobacco trade over the ocean had been largely in the hands of the Dutch merchantmen, who were now prevented of it for the war with England. The trade between New York and the Delaware was slackened on account of the tenths of all sorts of goods that had to be paid. This being the heritage of the Dutch system and was abolished on March 20, 1666, by order of Colonel Nicholls, who was the governor for the Duke of York's domains of the former New Netherland.

As we have seen, the west side of the Delaware River up to the 40th degree of north latitude had been granted to Lord Baltimore, and the grant for the Duke of York did not include the said territory, however the land was held by the duke without immediate protest, he being the king's brother and later became king himself.

The territory about the Christina Creek had became one of the largest Finnish settlements on the Delaware, necessitating the building of a new church at Crane Hook, in 1667. Here the Finnish minister the Rev. Lokenius preached in the Swedish language in order to be understood by the Dutch as well as the Finns. This church was attended by the Dutch from New Castle, as they did not have their own minister. The Dutch and Swedish languages were very similar in those days and although the Finns were only partly acquainted with the Swedish language when they came to the country, they seem to have acquired it in the colony and Swedish became the language of communication between the Dutch and Finns.

At the time of the conquest of the Delaware by the Dutch from the Swedes, the River became divided into two administrative districts, the Finnish Colony and the Dutch settlement of New Amstel. Later when the whole river fell under the rule of the City of Amsterdam and a Mennonite colony was established at the Hoornkill, that became a third administrative district. Some kind of central government at the Delaware had been found necessary in 1668, and on the 21st of April, the governor and council at New York passed a series of resolutions and directions, among which were: "That the civil government in the respective plantations be continued till further order.

"That to prevent all abuses or oppositions in civil magistrates, so often as complaint is made, the commission officer Captain Carr shall call the shout with Hans Block, Israel Helms, Peter Rambo, Peter Cock, Peter Alrich or any two of them as councilors, to advise, hear and determine, by the major vote what is just, equitable and necessary in the case or cases in question.

"That the same persons also or any two or more of them be called to advise and direct what is best to be done in all cases of difficulty which may arise from the Indians and to give their counsel and orders for the arming of the several plantations and planters who must obey and attend their summons upon such occasions.

"That the commissioned officer Captain Carr in the determination of the chief civil affairs whereunto the temporary forementioned councilors are ordained shall have a casting voice where votes are equal.

"That the newly appointed councilors are to take the oath to his Royal Highness.

"That the laws of the government established by his Royal Highness be shown and frequently communicated to the said councilors and all others to the end that being therewith acquainted the practice of them may also in convenient time be established which conduces to the public welfare and common justice."

Thus there was a central government established at the Delaware. The reason why it had not been done before was the uncertainty of this territory on account of the war with Holland and the possible claim of it by Lord Baltimore. In the treaty of Breda on July 31, 1667, the Dutch territories in North America were finally ceded to England.

Three of the newly appointed councilors, Helme, Rambo and Cock were Finns, the Finns being the vast majority of the population of the Delaware River at this time.

The selling of liquors to the Indians had again become common at the Delaware and some servants having been killed by them in a plantation of an Englishman and a Dutchman, therefore the Indians again appealed in the Finnish colony for an absolute prohibition upon the whole river of selling strong liquors to them. On their behalf Peter Rambo appeared before the Governor and Council in New York, in the beginning of June 1668. As a result of this a letter was written to Captain Carr, which in part says "You are therefore by these presents authorized to convene as many of those persons who are joined with you, in commission, for the management of the civil affairs, and with their advice, to give all necessary rules and orders for the good government both of Christians and Indians; and because both those murders and the restraining of the Indians from liquors, will fall into deliberation what you (upon discourse with the Indians) conclude to be the best for those plantations must be remitted hither and shall be confirmed, as if we had been present at the transactions.

                             Fort James, June 5, 1668,
                   Governor R. Nicholls and Col. Francis Lovelace."

To secure the English occupation, twenty soldiers under the commissioned officer, Captain Carr were held at this period at the Delaware. Towards whose support the farmers paid one bushel of wheat as quit-rent for each 100 acres of land that they had occupied. In 1666 a general order had been issued that all persons, who had old Dutch patents on lands, should bring them in to be renewed and those who had no patent should obtain it during a certain limited time. The farmers at the Delaware River had not paid much attention to the order, thinking that the grants made by their own magistrates were sufficient, and the order was not enforced because the uncertainty of the territory, as it legally belonged to Lord Baltimore. The order was however renewed on July 1, 1669, by Francis Lovelace, the new governor of New York, and the Delaware inhabitants were specially reminded that "these presents do declare and make known that the inhabitants in and about Delaware being under this government are likewise concerned as well as the rest."

The Finnish settlers at the Delaware were making good progress by putting, new land under cultivation and adding to their domestic animals, building new farmhouses and churches and trading with the Indians. The shipping over the ocean had been resumed, bringing money to the country and new English settlers were arriving in the East New Jersey, creating new markets for the farm products of the Finns. They were enjoying the best time in their lives when a calamity befell upon them.

This misfortune being the outcome of the territorial claims of Sweden at the Delaware, we make a review of the Swedish efforts to regain the colony. As soon as the capture of the South River by the Dutch in 1655 became known in Stockholm, the Swedish resident, Appelbom, at The Hague was instructed to demand the restoration of the colony with indemnities to Sweden. Upon this the States General and the Assembly of States of Holland were quick to pass resolution to examine the matter, but this was done only to beat time and ultimately to forget it. The Swedish-Finnish armies during these years were busy in many wars, the aftermaths of the Thirty Years' War, but Charles X. of Sweden had the intention to regain the colony and even granted monopolies for trade there in 1658. Time passed and nothing could be done on account of many wars. In 1663, when large numbers of Finns in Sweden on the inducements of the agents of the City of Amsterdam, were departing for the Delaware River, the question about the colony became revived in Sweden. A demand of the restitution of the colony with indemnities was presented to the Dutch Resident Heinsius in Stockholm. The question became acute in 1664, when in the spring of said year 140 Finnish colonists on their way to Delaware were discovered in Annsterdam by Trotzig, the Swedish commissioner. For this and other matters, Appelbom was again sent to The Hague as Swedish ambassador and after delivering hit, credentials to their High Mightinesses, started immediately to press with memorials the return of the Delaware colony to Sweden. At the same time Leijonberg, the Swedish ambassador in London was instructed to present a complaint against the Dutch occupancy of the Delaware. The negotiations were going on while England took possession of the Delaware and all, but this did not stop Sweden of pressing on Holland for the return of the colony. On account of the superior armies then at the disposal of Sweden, Holland could be made to listen. On the other hand the Dutch possessed one of the most formidable navies in the world who might be in position to recapture the colony from England. Hostilities between Holland and England were going on and the Swedes thought that Holland would now be willing to return the colony as it was no more under her control, but the Dutch were evasive. However as the Delaware in the treaty of Breda in 1667, had been finally left to England, the Dutch became more conciliatory towards the Swedes in the question and in the treaty of friendship made in the summer of 1667, between Holland and Sweden, it was promised that the matter should be settled according to justice and as soon as possible. The question about the colony was kept alive by Sweden and in the beginning of 1669 a report reached the Swedish government that the people at the Delaware had been forsaken and left by themselves. The Swedish ambassador in London was instructed to find out what England intended to do with the colony and in the summer a memorial setting forth the Swedish claims to the Delaware was handed to the English ambassador at Stockholm. The answer of England was however that the colony had been gained by conquest and treaty, and it was now too late to change the result. Four years more Sweden kept pressing England for the return of the colony.

The Swedish government seem to have felt pity for the Finns who had been left "by themselves" at the Delaware and in the summer of 1669 there appeared in the colony a man introducing himself as Konigsmark but to some Finns he had entrusted his real name to be Marcus Jacobus. He was accused of going up and down the river, from one place to another and making speeches inciting rebellion against the English rule. To him was associated a Finnish farmer Henry Coleman, who said to have left his farm with cattle and corn without any care taken for them, while running around with the said Jacobus. A warrant for their arrest had been issued by the high court at the river, but Coleman having got information about it, kept himself among the Indians. It was therefore ordered by Governor Lovelace that a proclamation in his name be set forth that if the said Henry Coleman do not come and surrender himself to the authorities at the river, within fifteen days after the date of the proclamation, to answer to what shall be objected against him then his estate will be seized and becomes the property of the king.

On September 14, 1669, there was a council meeting held in New York in which were discussed letters from Captain Carr that an insurrection was very much feared at the Delaware. It was ordered, that a letter of thanks be sent to the officers at the river for their great vigilance. The Long Finn, as Marcus Jacobus was called, who had been captured was ordered to be kept in irons until the governor or some persons commissioned from him shall go over to examine into and try the matter of fact, which is so "heinous and high nature." All other persons who had any connection with the plot, were to be held in bonds and an account was to be taken of their estates.

There were now courts held at the Delaware, before which suspected persons were questioned and held for bond. The Finns in the case were divided, as even the court was composed of the Finnish councilors. The Dutch likewise were involved in the case, among them was Peter Alrich, member of the council.

On September 15th, Governor Lovelace again writes, addressing his letter to Captain Carr, the Schout and Commissaries on the Delaware. He acknowledges the receipt of a packet containing documents and depositions concerning the insurrection, and thanks the above mentioned authorities for their "prudent and careful management" of the matters in connection of the case, promising that their services to his Royal Majesty and the country will not be buried in oblivion. He wishes he could go to the Delaware, but is expecting the arrival of some ships from England, requiring his presence. He thinks that the advice of their own countrymen is not to be despised who knowing their temper well, prescribe a method for keeping them in order, which is severity and laying such fines on them as may not give them liberty to entertain any other thought but how to discharge them.

The governor was disheartened that Madame Papegoja or Armagot Printz, (who had returned to the country to try to dispose with her father's ill famed plantations), had intermeddled in the unworthy design, despite all the indulgences and favors she had received from those in authority over her.

Governor Lovelace also suspects that the Finnish minister the Rev. Lokenius may have had hand in the intended insurrection and refers the quality of his punishment to the discretions of the Delaware authorities.

Some inhabitants of Delaware had sent a petition to the governor, in behalf of those complicated in the Long Finn's case, but he says, he will take little notice of it since it came not by the hands of the Delaware government. However if the parties were to make any further petition to the Captain and Commissaries of the said government, they were to send it to the governor with their advice. Governor Lovelace closes his letter by leaving the above case and other public affairs at the Delaware to, the prudence and discretion of the captain and commissaries and thinks that it is very much relied upon.

Meanwhile the Long Finn had escaped but was recaptured, and Governor Lovelace in his letter of the 19th of October orders him to be kept safe a little longer until he will send some commissioner from New York to examine into the whole matter. The governor did not however want to have the ordinary people whom the Long Finn drew into the trouble too much frightened, since he had thought fit to excuse them by fines to be imposed upon them according to their guilt. On November 22d, the secretary Matthias Nicholls of New York was commissioned to proceed to the Delaware and preside there in they high court, to be held for the trial of the Long Finn and his associates in the attempted insurrection. The form of holding the court was minutely arranged and prescribed in writing by Governor Lovelace, in order that all the high bluff of dignity, characteristic of the English courts, would be observed and applied in order to overawe the accused parties. The indictment of the Long Finn was summed in the instructions as "that having not the fear of God before thine eyes but being instigated by the devil upon or about the 28th day of August in the 21st year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord Charles the 2d by the Grace of God of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, etc. Annoque Domini 1669, at Christina and at several other times and places before thou didst most wickedly, traitorously, feloniously and maliciously conspire and attempt to invade by force of arms this Government settled under the allegiance and protection of His Majesty and also didst most traitorously solicit and entice divers and threaten others of his Majesty's good subjects to betray their allegiance to his Majesty, the King of England, persuading them to revolt and adhere to a foreign prince, that is to say, to the King of Sweden, in prosecution whereof thou didst appoint and caused to be held riotous, routous and unlawful assemblies, breaking the Peace of our Sovereign Lord the King and the laws of this Government in such cases provided."

Most of the sentences in the case had been decided in advance by Governor Lovelace and his Council in New York, The Long Finn was ordered to be publicly and severely whipt and stigmatized or branded in the face with the letter R, with an inscription written in great letters and put upon his breast, that he received that punishment for attempting rebellion, after which he will be secured until he can be sent and sold as slave to the Barbadoes or some other remote plantation. The chiefest of his accomplices were to forfeit half of their property and the rest of his followers were to be fined according to the discretion of the high court at the Delaware.

The list of the inhabitants of the Delaware, that were confederates with the Long Finn includes eighty-five persons and their fines, all combined make the sum of 26,582 guilders. The list which six years after the rebellion had been "transcribed and examined" by Secretary Matthias Nicholls on May 11, 1675, at New Castle, however had some errors, nine persons having been mentioned in the list twice, either by different orthography or by their nicknames and real names, as an example Evartt the Finn is the. same as Evert Hendrickson. The correct number is 76 persons and their combined fines 23,252 guilders, which in present day money value would approach one hundred thousand dollars.

The Long Finn after his sentence was transferred to New York, where he was kept a prisoner in the State House. In January 25, 1670, his case was taken into consideration in the meeting of the council, when a warrant was ordered to be drawn to Captain Cousseau to receive him and another to the sheriff to deliver him. The warrant to Captain Cousseau reads: "Whereas Marcus Jacobson, commonly called the Long Finn, having for some great misdemeanor forfeited his liberty and life if the strictness of the law had been put in. execution, but through the clemency and favor of the Governor and Council, have sentence only to receive some corporal punishment and also to be transported and sold into some of the remote plantations from the place where he committed the fact. These are to empower you when you shall have brought the said Marcus Jacobson alias the Long Finn to the Barbadoes, that you cause him to be sold for a servant to the best advantage for the space of four years or the usual time servants are there sold at, and that you make return of the produce to this Fort, deducting the charges of his passage and other necessary expenses about him. And for so doing this shall be your warrant."

After the above follows in the council minute book: "January 26, 1670. This day the Long Finn called Marcus Jacobson was by warrant put on board Mr. Cousseau's ship called the Fort Albany to be transported and sold at the Barbadoes according to the sentence of Court at Delaware for his attempting rebellion. He had been a prisoner in the State house since the 20th day of December last."

This closes the incident and in the council meeting at New York, on January 26th it was ordered that a letter of thanks be sent to the Commissioners at the Delaware for their good care of matters, and according to their desire and an order of the special court held at New Castle, there be an officer appointed amongst them to keep the peace and a commission be issued to that purpose.

Secretary Matthias Nicholls writes to Colonel Nicholls about his trip to the Delaware, in his letter of December 31, 1669, that "Here is nothing of news worthy the imparting to your honor, all things are quiet, only there was a silly, intention of an insurrection amongst the Finns at Delaware, but the ringleaders being surprized by the officers there, their design was broken. They pretended an expectation of some Swedish ships to come and reduce that place. It was the Governor's pleasure to send me there to make enquiry in the matter, from whence I returned the beginning of Christmas week."

At this period, the old fort at New Castle had become antiquated, therefore a proposition was made by "the Honorable Captain Carr to the Worshipful Council," that a suitable place might be selected at New Castle, to erect some fortifications for time of need and that another suitable place might be chosen above Christina Creek, which would serve as retreat in times of need and should also be fortified. It was resolved and answered:

"1. That it was thought the market place, where the bell hangs, was the most convenient place in New Castle to erect blockhouses for defensive purposes and it was resolved to give order accordingly.

"2. Concerning the fortifications above, the matter is left to the discretion of the people there, to choose the most convenient place or places for the defence.

"3. All however with this understanding, that, if no war breaks out with the Indians, which God may prevent, the said houses shall be used for the public service, as Council house, prison and for other public purposes, while they may be used as such by the whole river for a general and public account and expenses."

Finally it was decided that the resolutions will not be carried into effect without the acceptance of his Honor the Governor, but preparations may be made in secret, without arousing suspicion among the Indians.

The members in the council present, besides Captain Carr, were Israel Helme, Peter Rambo and Peter Cock, being the Finnish members of the council. Hans Block was the Dutch member and William Tom was an English member who replaced Peter Alrich for the latter falling in trouble at the Long Finn's rebellion.

There were now many pressing needs in the public affairs at the Delaware River, discharge of which required the governors orders or acceptance, therefore it had been thought advisable that Captain Carr goes to New York, personally to make proposals before the Governor and Council in order to hasten the execution of the same. His departure had been held up for some time by a threatening situation from the side of the Indians. This danger had now vanished as the result of understanding made with the Indians through the Finns. In a letter of February 29, 1671, to the inhabitants of Delaware, through Peter Rambo, Governor Lovelace writes concerning the Indian affairs that "I recommend the affair to your vigilant and prudent managery. In which I cannot omit to mind you that not only your own safety but the house of my Royal Master and own nation is so nearly concerned in the recommending you to the protection of the Almighty, I remain your loving friend."

Captain Carr was now in New York; he appeared in Council meeting on April 15, 1671. During his absence from Delaware, letters from the Governor and Council were addressed to Peter Rambo. There were thirteen proposals, concerning the affairs of Delaware, tendered to the consideration of the Governor and his Council by the Captain. The first proposal being that the Town of New Castle, being the strength of the River and only place capable to defend itself against the sudden violence and incursion of the Indians. It is humbly left to consideration whether the inhabitants should not have some more than ordinary encouragement. As first, that a block house may be erected in some convenient place of the town, where a constant watch be kept. Answers to the proposals were given at a Council held on June 14, 1671, at Fort James in New York. The first proposal was answered, that the inhabitants of the Town of New Castle may assure themselves of all due encouragement. And what is proposed as to the erecting of a block house for their common defence, it is very well approved of.

The second proposition was that no sloop or vessel from New York or any, other place coming to traffic or trade at the Delaware be permitted to go up the river above New Castle, for that would be the ruin of the said town as all trade deserts it and the inhabitants are left without the means of livelihood Such an order had been in power before. This was granted and the former order was to be put in execution. Thirdly, it was stated that the distilling of strong liquors out of corn was the cause of a great consumption of that grain, as also much time was wasted by the inhabitants in connection of it. Therefore it was proposed that distilling be absolutely prohibited or restrained. Upon this it was ordered that no person in Delaware shall be permitted to distill liquors but such as give in their names to the officers at New Castle, from whom they shall have license to do so, and also that such distillers shall pay or cause to be paid one guilder per can for all strong liquors, that they shall distill, the which shall go towards the reparation of the new block house, or fort or some other public work.

The fourth proposition being that the number of liquor retailers be ascertained. That is to say, three only for the town of New Castle and some few in the Finnish villages up the river. This was granted. Fifthly it was proposed that constables may be appointed to keep the King's Peace, who shall have staves with the king's coat of arms upon them. It was granted. The sixth proposition was that the magistrates at the Delaware may have the king's coat of arms to be set up in their Courts of Judicature, as well as on their staves, which was granted. For the seventh it was proposed that what land the officers at the Delaware have made grants of, for new plantations, may be confirmed. To this was answered that all such grants as the officers have already made were to be valid. New patents were to be issued on the condition that each planter maintain a house lot in the nearest town to be erected for their mutual defence, and the new grants to be made by the governor. The eighth proposition contained that several orders issued by the Council of Commissaries of the Delaware, before and about the time of the trial of the Long Finn, concerning public charges, as the Hoornkill having officers subordinate to those of New Castle, as also for clearing the highways, maintaining fences and other matters relating to good government, should be reinforced by the approbation of the governor and his council. It was consented unto, that the above referred orders stand good, and the officers at the Delaware are to cause them to be put in execution.

The ninth proposition was that as the Marylanders had offered to clear for a highway half the way between their plantations on the Chesapeake Bay and the town of New Castle, if the people of Delaware clear the other half. The commissaries were empowered to enjoin the inhabitants of Delaware to clear their proportion. For the tenth it was proposed that a person be appointed and sworn at New Castle to be inspector of corn, beef and pork. To see that corn intended for export is duly measured and well cleaned and that beef and pork will be well packed and merchandable. The proposal was found very convenient and the permission given.

The eleventh proposal relates about the mill at Carcoons Hook, built during the time of Governor Printz, by the inhabitants, for the public use. Now some private parties are endeavoring to appropriate it for themselves. (Undoubtedly Miss Printz.) It was therefore recommended to be taken into the custody of his Royal Highness, to be used for the general good of the inhabitants. It was ordered that the mill be let out to some person and the profits reserved for public purposes.

In the twelfth proposal it was wished that no quantities of liquors be sold to the Indians under a quarter of an ancker, half, or a whole ancker. In this case the Englishmen did not seem to be so very strict, it was left to the discretion of the officers at the Delaware.

Lastly they say that the houses in the old fort are so decayed that they should be demolished and the materials used in the building of the new block house. This was granted.

Finally the inhabitants of the Delaware wished to know by what tenure they were holding their lands as it was not expressed in the new patents. This was explained by the governor that the lands are to be held in free and common socage as his Royal Highness by his Majesty's patent holds his territories in America, only with the proviso that they pay the quit-rent (a bushel of wheat for every 100 acres of land) as an acknowledgement to his Royal Highness.

The relations with the Indians at the Delaware again became strained as the Indians had killed two Dutchmen at the Matiniconck Island. In a meeting at Fort James on September 25, 1671, the new governor of New Jersey, Philip Carterett being present, it was decided to prepare for war with the Indians and the officers at the Delaware were ordered accordingly. Another meeting was held on November 7th at Elizabeth, New Jersey, as the murderers were living in the territory of that state. A letter had arrived from the Delaware, being an answer of the governor's order for the preparation of a war against the Indians. The letter reads:

"Right Honorable. The Indians not bringing in the murderers to their promise I went up with Mr. Aldrichs to Pieter Cock and there called the Raedt (council) together to inform your honor what we think most for our preservation and defence of the River.

"First we think that at this time of the year it is too late to begin a war against the Indians, the hay for our beasts not being to be brought to any place of safety and so for want of hay we must see them starve before our faces; the next year we can cut it more convenient.

"Secondly our corn not being thrashed or ground we must starve for want of provisions which this winter we can grind and lay up in places of safety.

"Thirdly that there must upon necessity a war in the spring (started) and by that time we shall make so much as we can preparation but wait from your honor assistance of men, ammunition and salt.

"Fourthly we intend to make towns at Passayunk, Tinicum, Upland and Verdrieties Hook, whereto the outplantations must retire.

"Fifthly we think that your honor's advice for a frontier about Mattinacunck Island as very good and likewise another at Wiccaco for the defence whereof your honor must send men.

"For there anything else unwritten we have sent Mr. Alrichs and Mr. Helme to advise your honor what is best to be done but intend to stop Thomas Lewes until your honor's order, for we think it not convenient any corn or provisions be sent out of the river until this bruit be over for we know not the next year whether we shall have any corn or not, we have no more at present, but to inform your honor that Captain Carr is not recovered but remain,

      (It is signed)
    Will Tom
"that if possible there    Peter Rambo
be hired fifty or sixty    Peter Cock
North Indians who will    H. Block
do more than 200 men    Hendrick Jansen
in such war."    Ed. Cantwell
    M. Roseman
    Ole Torsen" (Tossawa)

Judging from the language, it is apparent that the letter was written by Will Tom, Captain Carr being sick. The murdered Dutchmen were servants of Will Tom and Peter Alrich.

Upon serious considerations of the above letter in New York, it was decided that the season was not fitting to commence a war with the Indians, so the expedition was deferred until a more convenient opportunity. Meanwhile the persons in authority in Delaware were to endeavor to have the murderers brought in either dead or alive. And if captured alive, they were to be put to death in the most public and shameful manner possible, so to strike a terror in the rest of the Indians. Some resolutions and orders had been made at Delaware showing their intentions to retire into towns for their better safety and security against the Indians in case of a war, the said resolutions were very well approved of and it was ordered, that at their best and soonest convenience they be put in execution. It was ordered, that the inhabitants at New Castle and parts adjacent upon Delaware River be digested into several companies as the towns and number of the men will permit; and upon return of the names of the officers, that shall be chosen amongst them to have the command of such companies they shall have commissions for their respective employments under his Majesty's obedience. In the mean time those officers, that shall be chosen, are to act and proceed with allowance, till they be confirmed. Further it was ordered that every person that can bear arms from 16 to 60 years of age, be always provided with a convenient proportion of powder and bullets, for their mutual defence, upon a penalty for their neglect herein, to be imposed according to law by the commission officers in command. The quantity of powder and the bullets to be adjudged competent for each person should be at least one pound of powder and two pounds of bullets. If the inhabitants in the River shall not be found sufficiently provided with arms, his Royal Highness' Governor is willing to furnish them out of the magazines or stores, they being accomptable and paying what they shall receive. It was also ordered that the places where the townships upon the river shall be kept, be appointed and agreed upon by the Schout, Commissaries and the rest of the officers there according to their proposal sent, as also where the block-houses and places of defence shall be erected as well in New Castle as in the River. The selling of powder and ammunition to the Indians was left to the discretion of the officers, who also were to try to get allies among the Indians to fight the murderous tribe and their allies.

Two days later Governor Lovelace addressed a letter from New York to Captain Carr in which he expressed much displeasure for the backwardness of the people of Delaware to start a war against the Indians, of which he blames Captain Carr. The captain is also blamed of having allowed the fort at New Castle decay down without letting the soldiers keep it in good shape. The governor intends to visit the river in the spring and expects that by that time the murderers from amongst the Indians be brought in dead or alive.

The Finns were not favorably inclined to start a war against the Indians, as the Indians did not harm them, besides an alleged murder of a woman and four children by the Indians was not true, but the party had drowned in a storm on their way from Maryland to Delaware on a sloop, as they had found out. Also the murderers of the two Dutch servants were known and could be secured and punished, for this the Indian Sachems appeared in Peter Rambo's house, a little after the governor's letter to Captain Carr, offering to bring the murderers in within six days, dead or alive. Their proposition being accepted, they sent out two Indians to the stoutest of the murderers, to bring him in, not doubting easily to take the other, he being an Indian of little courage; but the least Indian getting knowledge of the design of the sachems, ran to advise his fellow, and told him to escape, or else they would both be killed, who answered he was not ready, but in the morning would go with him to the Maquas, and advised him to go to the next house, for fear of suspicion, which he did, and the two captors coming to the house of the stronger Indian, one of them being his great friend, he asked him if he would kill him, who answered "no, but the sachems have ordered you to die"; whereupon he demanded "what his brothers said"; who answered, "they say the like." Then the Indian, holding his hands before his eyes, said, "kill me"; whereupon his captor shot him with two bullets in the breast, and gave him two or three cuts with a bill on the head, and brought his body down to the Finnish village of Wiccaco, where they were rewarded and the body was taken to New Castle. When the other Indian heard the shot in the night, naked as he was, he ran into the woods; but the sachems promised to bring the other alive. A good many Indians came with the body and their sachems promised that if any other murders were committed by the Indians, the murderers would be brought to the white men.

The cause for the troubles with the Indians at this time was that they were treated with violence by the Englishmen in Virginia and Maryland. Instead of buying with little presents the land that the Indians rightfully possessed, the Indian sachems complained that wherever the English come they drive us from our lands, and they will do the same on the Delaware if not timely prevented.

As many Finns became settled in New Amsterdam and other places along the Hudson River during the time the Delaware river was settled by them, there had been attempts to establish Lutheran Congregations, but this was suppressed by the Dutch authorities who permitted only the Dutch Reformed Religion. After the conquest of New Netherland by the English, the Finns and probably some Dutch with them appealed to Colonel Nicholls for permission to procure a Lutheran minister, which was granted on December 6, 1664. The Lutheran services were held in private houses, but they had now decided to build a church and therefore requested permission from Governor Lovelace to send a member of the congregation to the Finnish settlements on the Delaware to collect money for the building fund. The following pass was issued to Martin Hoofman, a Finn, by the governor: "Whereas the Minister and Officers of the Augustana Confession or Lutheran Congregation in this city under the protection of his Royal Highness the Duke of York, have requested by licence to build and erect a House for their Church to meet in, towards the which they do suppose all or most of their profession will in some measure contribute, and there being diverse of them in the South River at Delaware, to which place a sloop being now bound a convenience presents, so that they have pitcht upon Martin Hoofman, to negotiate there for them; these are to require all persons that they permit and suffer the said Martin Hoofman to pass out of this port in the sloop belonging to Captain Martin Creiger bound for New Castle in Delaware, and the officers there are likewise required no way to hinder or molest the said Martin Hoofman in his endeavors of collecting the benevolence of such of the Lutheran Profession in those parts, towards their intents as aforesaid. Provided it does noway hinder or tend to make division or disturbance amongst the people, nor shall occasion the breach of Peace, the which all his Majesty's good subjects are obliged to keep. Hereof they are not to fail. Given under my hand at Fort James in New York the 16th day of January, 1672."

The church that was now built by the Finns in New York, was situated at the lower end of the Manhattan Island, "under the fortification and the bulwarks," at the present Battery Park.

Governor Lovelace was now preparing to go to the Delaware, overland, "as well to conclude a peace among the mutinous Indians in those parts, as to settle affairs on that river, under his majesty's obedience." For this purpose he ordered twenty mounted soldiers to be summoned from Long Island for the body guard of himself and retinue as well as "for the reputation of his Royal Highness." Captain Garland with three of the soldiers was dispatched about ten days earlier to make preparations for the arrival of the governor and his retinue. The governor was to start his journey on March 22, 1672, and Captain Garland was given the following instructions: "Go with the horses allotted by the captain, as speedily as you can, to Nevesink, thence to the house of Mr. Jegoe, right against Mattiniconck Island, on Delaware River, where there are some persons ready to receive you. Being arrived at the river side, you are to go to Wiccaco, or where you shall be directed, where Captain Carr and the commissaries are, to whom deliver the letter, and then follow their instructions. You are to see that all conveniences for me and my party be made ready for our accommodation, as provisions, boats, etc., and likewise a considerable guard of men at Mattiniconck Island. After all these things are in order, you are to meet me with your party, and such other volunteers as are disposed to accompany you, and meet me one day's journey, which is at the great Indian plantation where I intend to lodge that night, and purpose to be there by God's help, on the 24th instant, and perhaps on the 23d. When we are there at the general rendezvous, I shall set things into further order. You are to treat the Indians and others with all civility, and to contrive it so that the Sussink Indians may be there when I pass by. You are to assure all the Indians that the intention of my coming amongst them is out of love and friendship to them."

Governor Lovelace's intentions seemingly were to dazzle the Indians with a mighty array of troops, the expenses of which were afterwards to be borne out of the fines of the Long Finn's rebellion.

In the beginning of April the governor appears in the Delaware, making some provisions for the government of Apoqueming and Hoornkill. Larger changes, concerning the affairs at Delaware, were made after the governor's return to New York. At a council held at Fort James in New York on May 17, 1672, the Town of New Castle was erected into a corporation, to be governed by a bailiff and six assistants. The English laws were, according to the desire of the inhabitants, to be established in all plantations upon Delaware River. The office of Schout was converted into a Sheriffalty and the High Sheriff's power extended both in the town and the river. Two men were annually to be elected for the Sheriff's office, of which the Governor will nominate and confirm one. The officers and magistrates had requested that ships from Europe be allowed to enter to and from Delaware without being obliged to make an entry into New York for custom duties and that duties be paid in the Delaware. The request was left for further consideration. Captain Nicholls' charges for the horses and men commanded from Long Island for the Governor's Delaware expedition, were ordered to be borne out of the fines of the rebellion of the Long Finn.

To advance the growth of New Amstel as a commercial centre by securing the trade of the Delaware River to her, it had been proposed in behalf of her inhabitants, and on the 14th of June, 1671, ordered by the Governor and Council in New York, that no vessel shall be permitted to go up the river above New Castle to traffic. This order was prejudicial to the Finnish farmers, as the people above New Castle were Finns, but it was profitable to the Finnish merchants, among which were the Finnish commissaries. Since the order went to effect, Governor Lovelace had given special permission to vessels to trade in the upper river, especially for grain which was found only there for sale. Finally the prohibition had been found inconvenient as on January 27, 1673, it was resolved at the council held in New York that "Upon its being represented to the Governor and Council the inconvenience of debarring sloops and vessels of this place from going up the River above New Castle, although it be permitted to all vessels within the government to go up the River to Albany, as also the distaste which had been taken, that some have had licences so to do, while others are restrained; it is thought fit and hereby ordered, that the prohibition thereof shall be taken away, and it shall and may from henceforth be lawful for any sloop or vessel to go up the said River, bringing a certificate from the Governor of his coming from hence, but that no other vessel shall have the like liberty, but such as do sail from this place thither directly."

The agents of Lord Baltimore were now showing more interest in the claims of the west side of the Delaware River up to the fortieth degrees of north latitude as contained in their master's patent. They had surveyed for their people some lands in the Hoornkill district and even contrived to drive away from there the people who were holding Duke of York's patents on their lands. About this Governor Lovelace wrote on August 12, 1672, to Philip Calvert, the Governor of Maryland, as follows: "I thought it had been impossible now in these portending boisterous times, wherein all true hearted Englishmen are buckling on their armors to vindicate their Honor and to assert the imperial interests of his Sacred Majesty's Rights and Dominions, that now (without any just ground either given or pretended) such horrid outrages should be committed on his Majesty's Liege subjects, under the protection of His Royal Highness Authority, as was exercised by one Jones, who with a party as dissolute as himself, took the pains to ride to the Hoornkill, where in Derision and Contempt of the Duke's Authority bound the Magistrates, and Inhabitants, despitefully treated them, rifled and plundered them of their goods; and when it was demanded by what authority he acted, answered in no other language but a cockt pistol to his brest, which if it had spoke, had forever silenced him. I do not remember I have heard of a greater outrage and, riot committed on his Majesty's Subjects in America, but once before in Maryland. Sir, you cannot but imagine his Royal Highness will not be satisfied with those violent proceedings, in which the indignity rebounds on him. Neither can you but believe, it is as easy an undertaking for me to retaliate the same affront on Jones his head and accomplices as he did to those indefensible inhabitants. But I rather choose to have first a more calm redress from you, (to whom I now appeal) and from whom may in justice expect that right in the castigation of Jones cum socys, that your nature and the law has provided for. Otherwise I must apply myself to such other remedies as the exigence of this indignity shall persuade me to. Thus leaving it to your consideration I still remain,

Your very humble servant."

While these quarrels about the territory on the west side of the Delaware River were going on between the agents of the two English noblemen, grave events were taking place in Europe. In August, 1672, a copy of the declaration of war by England against Holland was sent to the Delaware River by Governor Lovelace with orders that it be publicly read. The governor further ordered: "That the great guns be with all convenient speed sent up to the Block houses in Delaware River according to my former order; and that the greatest be disposed of according to the distance of the place." On October 7, 1672, the Governor writes to Captain Carr that the Marylanders are preparing to invade the Delaware, further adding: "My instructions and orders to you and the officers in general are, that you put yourselves into the best posture of defence possibly you can, by fitting up the Fort in the Town, keeping your companies in arms both there and up the River, who are to provide themselves with fitting ammunition, and that all soldiers be at an hour's warning upon any alarm or orders given. That in the Town especially you make your guard as strong as you can, and keep a strict watch; and if any comes to demand the place, that you first desire to know their authority and commission and how it comes to pass those of Maryland should now make such an invasion, after so long quiet possession of those parts by his Royal Highness' deputies under his Majesty's obedience, and by other nations before that, several years before the date of the Lord Baltimore's patent, whom they never disturbed by arms, and whose right is now, devolved upon the Duke. Stand well upon your guard and do not begin with them, but if they first break the peace by firing upon your guards or any such hostile action, then use all possible means to defend yourselves and the place, and command all his Majesty's good subjects to be aiding and assisting to you, who I hope will not be wanting to their abilities. In all matters of concern you are to take the advice of the chief officers there."

The quarrels continued and although not any great invasion from Maryland took place, the Marylanders were aggressive in the Hoornkill district, where they were making their settlements and were putting the country there under their government. In the spring of 1673, Captain Carr and others proposed to Governor Lovelace that the place be reduced under the government of the Duke of York, whereupon it was decided in the Council meeting in New York, on April 14, that a commission be sent to make inquiry of all irregular proceedings in the Hoornkill "and to settle the government and officers there as formerly under his Majesty's obedience."

Publication: E. A. Louhi: The Delaware Finns or The First Permanent Settlements in Pennsylvania, Delaware, West New Jersey, and Eastern Part of Maryland. New York, The Humanity Press Publishers. 1925, 331 pages.

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